Drug: Botox

BOTOX (onabotulinumtoxinA) for injection is a sterile, vacuum-dried purified botulinum toxin type A, produced from fermentation of Hall strain Clostridium botulinum type A, and intended for intramuscular, intradetrusor and intradermal use. It is purified from the culture solution by dialysis and a series of acid precipitations to a complex consisting of the neurotoxin, and several accessory proteins. The complex is dissolved in sterile sodium chloride solution containing Albumin Human and is sterile filtered (0.2 microns) prior to filling and vacuum-drying. The primary release procedure for BOTOX uses a cell-based potency assay to determine the potency relative to a reference standard. The assay is specific to Allergan's products BOTOX and BOTOX Cosmetic. One Unit of BOTOX corresponds to the calculated median intraperitoneal lethal dose (LD50) in mice. Due to specific details of this assay such as the vehicle, dilution scheme, and laboratory protocols, Units of biological activity of BOTOX cannot be compared to nor converted into Units of any other botulinum toxin or any toxin assessed with any other specific assay method. The specific activity of BOTOX is approximately 20 Units/nanogram of neurotoxin protein complex. Each vial of BOTOX contains either 50 Units of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin complex, 0.25 mg of Albumin Human, and 0.45 mg of sodium chloride; 100 Units of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin complex, 0.5 mg of Albumin Human, and 0.9 mg of sodium chloride; or 200 Units of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin complex, 1 mg of Albumin Human, and 1.8 mg of sodium chloride in a sterile, vacuum-dried form without a preservative.

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The following adverse reactions to BOTOX (onabotulinumtoxinA) for injection are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
  • Spread of Toxin Effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Hypersensitivity [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Dysphagia and Breathing Difficulties in Treatment of Cervical Dystonia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Bronchitis and Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Patients Treated for Spasticity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Urinary Retention in Patients Treated for Bladder Dysfunction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. BOTOX and BOTOX Cosmetic contain the same active ingredient in the same formulation, but with different labeled Indications and Usage. Therefore, adverse reactions observed with the use of BOTOX Cosmetic also have the potential to be observed with the use of BOTOX. In general, adverse reactions occur within the first week following injection of BOTOX and while generally transient, may have a duration of several months or longer. Localized pain, infection, inflammation, tenderness, swelling, erythema, and/or bleeding/bruising may be associated with the injection. Needle-related pain and/or anxiety may result in vasovagal responses (including e.g., syncope, hypotension), which may require appropriate medical therapy. Local weakness of the injected muscle(s) represents the expected pharmacological action of botulinum toxin. However, weakness of nearby muscles may also occur due to spread of toxin [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Overactive Bladder Table 10 presents the most frequently reported adverse reactions in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials for overactive bladder occurring within 12 weeks of the first BOTOX treatment. Table 10: Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 2% of BOTOX treated Patients and More Often than in Placebo-treated Patients Within the First 12 Weeks after Intradetrusor Injection, in Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trials in Patients with OAB
Adverse Reactions BOTOX 100 Units
(N=552) Placebo
(N=542) Urinary tract infection 99 (18%) 30 (6%) Dysuria 50 (9%) 36 (7%) Urinary retention 31 (6%) 2 (0%) Bacteriuria 24 (4%) 11 (2%) Residual urine volume* 17 (3%) 1 (0%) *Elevated PVR not requiring catheterization. Catheterization was required for PVR ≥ 350 mL regardless of symptoms, and for PVR ≥ 200 mL to < 350 mL with symptoms (e.g., voiding difficulty). A higher incidence of urinary tract infection was observed in patients with diabetes mellitus treated with BOTOX 100 Units and placebo than in patients without diabetes, as shown in Table 11. Table 11: Proportion of Patients Experiencing Urinary Tract Infection following an Injection in Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trials in OAB according to history of Diabetes Mellitus
  Patients with Diabetes Patients without Diabetes BOTOX 100 Units
(N=81) Placebo
(N=69) BOTOX 100 Units
(N=526) Placebo
(N=516) Urinary tract infection (UTI) 25 (31%) 8 (12%) 135 (26%) 51 (10%) The incidence of UTI increased in patients who experienced a maximum post-void residual (PVR) urine volume ≥ 200 mL following BOTOX injection compared to those with a maximum PVR < 200 mL following BOTOX injection, 44% versus 23%, respectively. No change was observed in the overall safety profile with repeat dosing during an open-label, uncontrolled extension trial. Detrusor Overactivity associated with a Neurologic Condition Table 12 presents the most frequently reported adverse reactions in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies within 12 weeks of injection for detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition. Table 12: Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 2% of BOTOX treated Patients and More Frequent than in Placebo-treated Patients Within the First 12 Weeks after Intradetrusor Injection in Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trials
Adverse Reactions BOTOX 200 Units
(N=262) Placebo
(N=272) Urinary tract infection 64 (24%) 47 (17%) Urinary retention 45 (17%) 8 (3%) Hematuria 10 (4%) 8 (3%) The following adverse reactions with BOTOX 200 Units were reported at any time following initial injection and prior to re-injection or study exit (median duration of 44 weeks of exposure): urinary tract infections (49%), urinary retention (17%), constipation (4%), muscular weakness (4%), dysuria (4%), fall (3%), gait disturbance (3%), and muscle spasm (2%). In the MS patients enrolled in the double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, the MS exacerbation annualized rate (i.e., number of MS exacerbation events per patient-year) was 0.23 for BOTOX and 0.20 for placebo. No change was observed in the overall safety profile with repeat dosing. Chronic Migraine In double-blind, placebo-controlled chronic migraine efficacy trials (Study 1 and Study 2), the discontinuation rate was 12% in the BOTOX treated group and 10% in the placebo-treated group. Discontinuations due to an adverse event were 4% in the BOTOX group and 1% in the placebo group. The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation in the BOTOX group were neck pain, headache, worsening migraine, muscular weakness and eyelid ptosis. The most frequently reported adverse reactions following injection of BOTOX for chronic migraine appear in Table 13. Table 13: Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 2% of BOTOX treated Patients and More Frequent than in Placebo-treated Patients in Two Chronic Migraine Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trials
Adverse Reactions by System Organ Class BOTOX 155 Units-195 Units
(N=687) Placebo
(N=692) Nervous system disorders   Headache 32 (5%) 22 (3%)   Migraine 26 (4%) 18 (3%)   Facial paresis 15 (2%) 0 (0%) Eye disorders   Eyelid ptosis 25 (4%) 2 ( < 1%) Infections and Infestations   Bronchitis 17 (3%) 11 (2%) Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders   Neck pain 60 (9%) 19 (3%)   Musculoskeletal stiffness 25 (4%) 6 (1%)   Muscular weakness 24 (4%) 2 ( < 1%)   Myalgia 21 (3%) 6 (1%)   Musculoskeletal pain 18 (3%) 10 (1%)   Muscle spasms 13 (2%) 6 (1%)   General disorders and administration site conditions Injection site pain 23 (3%) 14 (2%)   Vascular Disorders Hypertension 11 (2%) 7 (1%) Other adverse reactions that occurred more frequently in the BOTOX group compared to the placebo group at a frequency less than 1% and potentially BOTOX related include: vertigo, dry eye, eyelid edema, dysphagia, eye infection, and jaw pain. Severe worsening of migraine requiring hospitalization occurred in approximately 1% of BOTOX treated patients in Study 1 and Study 2, usually within the first week after treatment, compared to 0.3% of placebo-treated patients. Upper Limb Spasticity The most frequently reported adverse reactions following injection of BOTOX for adult spasticity appear in Table 14. Table 14: Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 2% of BOTOX treated Patients and More Frequent than in Placebo-treated Patients in Adult Spasticity Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trials
Adverse Reactions by System Organ Class BOTOX 251 Units-360 Units
(N=115) BOTOX 150 Units-250 Units
(N=188) BOTOX < 150 Units (N=54) Placebo
(N=182) Gastrointestinal disorder Nausea 3 (3%) 3 (2%) 1 (2%) 1 (1%) General disorders and administration site conditions Fatigue 4 (3%) 4 (2%) 1 (2%) 0 Infections and infestations Bronchitis 4 (3%) 4 (2%) 0 2 (1%) Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Pain in extremity 7 (6%) 10 (5%) 5 (9%) 8 (4%) Muscular weakness 0 7 (4%) 1 (2%) 2 (1%) Twenty two adult patients, enrolled in double-blind placebo controlled studies, received 400 Units or higher of BOTOX for treatment of upper limb spasticity. In addition, 44 adults received 400 Units of BOTOX or higher for four consecutive treatments over approximately one year for treatment of upper limb spasticity. The type and frequency of adverse reactions observed in patients treated with 400 Units of BOTOX were similar to those reported in patients treated for upper limb spastcity with 360 Units of BOTOX. Cervical Dystonia In cervical dystonia patients evaluated for safety in double-blind and open-label studies following injection of BOTOX, the most frequently reported adverse reactions were dysphagia (19%), upper respiratory infection (12%), neck pain (11%), and headache (11%). Other events reported in 2-10% of patients in any one study in decreasing order of incidence include: increased cough, flu syndrome, back pain, rhinitis, dizziness, hypertonia, soreness at injection site, asthenia, oral dryness, speech disorder, fever, nausea, and drowsiness. Stiffness, numbness, diplopia, ptosis, and dyspnea have been reported. Dysphagia and symptomatic general weakness may be attributable to an extension of the pharmacology of BOTOX resulting from the spread of the toxin outside the injected muscles [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. The most common severe adverse reaction associated with the use of BOTOX injection in patients with cervical dystonia is dysphagia with about 20% of these cases also reporting dyspnea [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Most dysphagia is reported as mild or moderate in severity. However, it may be associated with more severe signs and symptoms [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Additionally, reports in the literature include a case of a female patient who developed brachial plexopathy two days after injection of 120 Units of BOTOX for the treatment of cervical dystonia, and reports of dysphonia in patients who have been treated for cervical dystonia. Primary Axillary Hyperhidrosis The most frequently reported adverse reactions (3-10% of adult patients) following injection of BOTOX in double-blind studies included injection site pain and hemorrhage, non-axillary sweating, infection, pharyngitis, flu syndrome, headache, fever, neck or back pain, pruritus, and anxiety. The data reflect 346 patients exposed to BOTOX 50 Units and 110 patients exposed to BOTOX 75 Units in each axilla. Blepharospasm In a study of blepharospasm patients who received an average dose per eye of 33 Units (injected at 3 to 5 sites) of the currently manufactured BOTOX, the most frequently reported adverse reactions were ptosis (21%), superficial punctate keratitis (6%), and eye dryness (6%). Other events reported in prior clinical studies in decreasing order of incidence include: irritation, tearing, lagophthalmos, photophobia, ectropion, keratitis, diplopia, entropion, diffuse skin rash, and local swelling of the eyelid skin lasting for several days following eyelid injection. In two cases of VII nerve disorder, reduced blinking from BOTOX injection of the orbicularis muscle led to serious corneal exposure, persistent epithelial defect, corneal ulceration and a case of corneal perforation. Focal facial paralysis, syncope, and exacerbation of myasthenia gravis have also been reported after treatment of blepharospasm. Strabismus Extraocular muscles adjacent to the injection site can be affected, causing vertical deviation, especially with higher doses of BOTOX. The incidence rates of these adverse effects in 2058 adults who received a total of 3650 injections for horizontal strabismus was 17%. The incidence of ptosis has been reported to be dependent on the location of the injected muscles, 1% after inferior rectus injections, 16% after horizontal rectus injections and 38% after superior rectus injections. In a series of 5587 injections, retrobulbar hemorrhage occurred in 0.3% of cases. Immunogenicity As with all therapeutic proteins, there is a potential for immunogenicity. Formation of neutralizing antibodies to botulinum toxin type A may reduce the effectiveness of BOTOX treatment by inactivating the biological activity of the toxin. In a long term, open-label study evaluating 326 cervical dystonia patients treated for an average of 9 treatment sessions with the current formulation of BOTOX, 4 (1.2%) patients had positive antibody tests. All 4 of these patients responded to BOTOX therapy at the time of the positive antibody test. However, 3 of these patients developed clinical resistance after subsequent treatment, while the fourth patient continued to respond to BOTOX therapy for the remainder of the study. One patient among the 445 hyperhidrosis patients (0.2%), two patients among the 380 adult upper limb spasticity patients (0.5%), no patients among 406 migraine patients, no patients among 615 overactive bladder patients, and no patients among 475 detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition patients with analyzed specimens developed the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The data reflect the patients whose test results were considered positive or negative for neutralizing activity to BOTOX in a mouse protection assay. The results of these tests are highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of neutralizing activity to Botox with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading. The critical factors for neutralizing antibody formation have not been well characterized. The results from some studies suggest that BOTOX injections at more frequent intervals or at higher doses may lead to greater incidence of antibody formation. The potential for antibody formation may be minimized by injecting with the lowest effective dose given at the longest feasible intervals between injections. Post-Marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of BOTOX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These reactions include: abdominal pain; alopecia, including madarosis; anorexia; brachial plexopathy; denervation/muscle atrophy; diarrhea; hyperhidrosis; hypoacusis; hypoaesthesia; malaise; paresthesia; peripheral neuropathy; radiculopathy; erythema multiforme, dermatitis psoriasiform, and psoriasiform eruption; strabismus; tinnitus; and visual disturbances. There have been spontaneous reports of death, sometimes associated with dysphagia, pneumonia, and/or other significant debility or anaphylaxis, after treatment with botulinum toxin [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. There have also been reports of adverse events involving the cardiovascular system, including arrhythmia and myocardial infarction, some with fatal outcomes. Some of these patients had risk factors including cardiovascular disease. The exact relationship of these events to the botulinum toxin injection has not been established. New onset or recurrent seizures have also been reported, typically in patients who are predisposed to experiencing these events. The exact relationship of these events to the botulinum toxin injection has not been established. Read the Botox (botulinum toxin type a) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Instructions For Safe Use The potency Units of BOTOX (onabotulinumtoxinA) for injection are specific to the preparation and assay method utilized. They are not interchangeable with other preparations of botulinum toxin products and, therefore, units of biological activity of BOTOX cannot be compared to nor converted into units of any other botulinum toxin products assessed with any other specific assay method [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DESCRIPTION]. Indication specific dosage and administration recommendations should be followed. When initiating treatment, the lowest recommended dose should be used. In treating adult patients for one or more indications, the maximum cumulative dose should not exceed 400 Units, in a 3 month interval. The safe and effective use of BOTOX depends upon proper storage of the product, selection of the correct dose, and proper reconstitution and administration techniques. Physicians administering BOTOX must understand the relevant neuromuscular and/or orbital anatomy of the area involved and any alterations to the anatomy due to prior surgical procedures. An understanding of standard electromyographic techniques is also required for treatment of strabismus and of upper limb spasticity, and may be useful for the treatment of cervical dystonia. Use caution when BOTOX treatment is used in the presence of inflammation at the proposed injection site(s) or when excessive weakness or atrophy is present in the target muscle(s). Preparation And Dilution Technique Prior to injection, reconstitute each vacuum-dried vial of BOTOX with only sterile, preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP. Draw up the proper amount of diluent in the appropriate size syringe (see Table 1, or for specific instructions for detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition see Section on Bladder Dysfunction), and slowly inject the diluent into the vial. Discard the vial if a vacuum does not pull the diluent into the vial. Gently mix BOTOX with the saline by rotating the vial. Record the date and time of reconstitution on the space on the label. BOTOX should be administered within 24 hours after reconstitution. During this time period, reconstituted BOTOX should be stored in a refrigerator (2° to 8°C). Table 1: Dilution Instructions for BOTOX Vials (50 Units, 100 Units, and 200 Units)**
Diluent* Added to 50 Unit Vial Resulting Dose Units per 0.1 mL Diluent* Added to 100 Unit Vial Resulting Dose Units per 0.1 mL Diluent* Added to 200 Unit Vial Resulting Dose Units per 0.1 mL 1 mL 5 Units 1 mL 10 Units 1 mL 20 Units 2 mL 2.5 Units 2 mL 5 Units 2 mL 10 Units 4 mL 1.25 Units 4 mL 2.5 Units 4 mL 5 Units     8 mL 1.25 Units 8 mL 2.5 Units     10 mL 1 Unit 10 mL 2 Units *Preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP Only
**For Detrusor Overactivity associated with a Neurologic Condition Dilution see Section on Bladder Dysfunction Note: These dilutions are calculated for an injection volume of 0.1 mL. A decrease or increase in the BOTOX dose is also possible by administering a smaller or larger injection volume -from 0.05 mL (50% decrease in dose) to 0.15 mL (50% increase in dose). An injection of BOTOX is prepared by drawing into an appropriately sized sterile syringe an amount of the properly reconstituted toxin slightly greater than the intended dose. Air bubbles in the syringe barrel are expelled and the syringe is attached to an appropriate injection needle. Patency of the needle should be confirmed. A new, sterile needle and syringe should be used to enter the vial on each occasion for removal of BOTOX. Reconstituted BOTOX should be clear, colorless, and free of particulate matter. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration and whenever the solution and the container permit. Bladder Dysfunction General Patients must not have a urinary tract infection (UTI) at the time of treatment. Prophylactic antibiotics, except aminoglycosides, [see DRUG INTERACTIONS] should be administered 1-3 days pre-treatment, on the treatment day, and 1-3 days post-treatment to reduce the likelihood of procedure-related UTI. Patients should discontinue anti-platelet therapy at least 3 days before the injection procedure. Patients on anti-coagulant therapy need to be managed appropriately to decrease the risk of bleeding. Appropriate caution should be exercised when performing a cystoscopy. Overactive Bladder An intravesical instillation of diluted local anesthetic with or without sedation may be used prior to injection, per local site practice. If a local anesthetic instillation is performed, the bladder should be drained and irrigated with sterile saline before injection. The recommended dose is 100 Units of BOTOX, and is the maximum recommended dose. The recommended dilution is 100 Units/10 mL with preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (see Table 1). Dispose of any unused saline. Reconstituted BOTOX (100 Units/10 mL) is injected into the detrusor muscle via a flexible or rigid cystoscope, avoiding the trigone. The bladder should be instilled with enough saline to achieve adequate visualization for the injections, but over-distension should be avoided. The injection needle should be filled (primed) with approximately 1 mL of reconstituted BOTOX prior to the start of injections (depending on the needle length) to remove any air. The needle should be inserted approximately 2 mm into the detrusor, and 20 injections of 0.5 mL each (total volume of 10 mL) should be spaced approximately 1 cm apart (see Figure 1). For the final injection, approximately 1 mL of sterile normal saline should be injected so that the remaining BOTOX in the needle is delivered to the bladder. After the injections are given, patients should demonstrate their ability to void prior to leaving the clinic. The patient should be observed for at least 30 minutes post-injection and until a spontaneous void has occurred. Patients should be considered for reinjection when the clinical effect of the previous injection has diminished (median time until patients qualified for the second treatment of BOTOX in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies was 169 days [~24 weeks]), but no sooner than 12 weeks from the prior bladder injection. Figure 1: Injection Pattern for Intradetrusor Injections for Treatment of Overactive Bladder and Detrusor Overactivity associated with a Neurologic Condition
Detrusor Overactivity associated with a Neurologic Condition An intravesical instillation of diluted local anesthetic with or without sedation, or general anesthesia may be used prior to injection, per local site practice. If a local anesthetic instillation is performed, the bladder should be drained and irrigated with sterile saline before injection. The recommended dose is 200 Units of BOTOX per treatment, and should not be exceeded. 200 Unit Vial of BOTOX
  • Reconstitute a 200 Unit vial of BOTOX with 6 mL of preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP and mix the vial gently.
  • Draw 2 mL from the vial into each of three 10 mL syringes.
  • Complete the reconstitution by adding 8 mL of preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP into each of the 10 mL syringes, and mix gently. This will result in three 10 mL syringes each containing 10 mL (~67 Units in each), for a total of 200 Units of reconstituted BOTOX.
  • Use immediately after reconstitution in the syringe. Dispose of any unused saline.
100 Unit Vial of BOTOX
  • Reconstitute two 100 Unit vials of BOTOX, each with 6 mL of preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP and mix the vials gently.
  • Draw 4 mL from each vial into each of two 10 mL syringes. Draw the remaining 2 mL from each vial into a third 10 mL syringe for a total of 4 mL in each syringe.
  • Complete the reconstitution by adding 6 mL of preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP into each of the 10 mL syringes, and mix gently. This will result in three 10 mL syringes each containing 10 mL (~67 Units in each), for a total of 200 Units of reconstituted BOTOX.
  • Use immediately after reconstitution in the syringe. Dispose of any unused saline.
Reconstituted BOTOX (200 Units/30 mL) is injected into the detrusor muscle via a flexible or rigid cystoscope, avoiding the trigone. The bladder should be instilled with enough saline to achieve adequate visualization for the injections, but over-distension should be avoided. The injection needle should be filled (primed) with approximately 1 mL of reconstituted BOTOX prior to the start of injections (depending on the needle length) to remove any air. The needle should be inserted approximately 2 mm into the detrusor, and 30 injections of 1 mL (~6.7 Units) each (total volume of 30 mL) should be spaced approximately 1 cm apart (see Figure 1). For the final injection, approximately 1 mL of sterile normal saline should be injected so that the remaining BOTOX in the needle is delivered to the bladder. After the injections are given, the saline used for bladder wall visualization should be drained. The patient should be observed for at least 30 minutes post-injection. Patients should be considered for re-injection when the clinical effect of the previous injection diminishes (median time to qualification for re-treatment in the double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies was 295-337 days [42-48 weeks] for BOTOX 200 Units), but no sooner than 12 weeks from the prior bladder injection. Chronic Migraine The recommended dilution is 200 Units/4 mL or 100 Units/2 mL, with a final concentration of 5 Units per 0.1 mL (see Table 1). The recommended dose for treating chronic migraine is 155 Units administered intramuscularly using a sterile 30-gauge, 0.5 inch needle as 0.1 mL (5 Units) injections per each site. Injections should be divided across 7 specific head/neck muscle areas as specified in the diagrams and Table 2 below. A one inch needle may be needed in the neck region for patients with thick neck muscles. With the exception of the procerus muscle, which should be injected at one site (midline), all muscles should be injected bilaterally with half the number of injection sites administered to the left, and half to the right side of the head and neck. The recommended re-treatment schedule is every 12 weeks. Diagrams 1-4: Recommended Injection Sites (A through G) for Chronic Migraine
Table 2: BOTOX Dosing by Muscle for Chronic Migraine
Head/Neck Area Recommended Dose (Number of Sitesa) Frontalisb 20 Units divided in 4 sites Corrugatorb 10 Units divided in 2 sites Procerus 5 Units in 1 site Occipitalisb 30 Units divided in 6 sites Temporalisb 40 Units divided in 8 sites Trapeziusb 30 Units divided in 6 sites Cervical Paraspinal Muscle Groupb 20 Units divided in 4 sites Total Dose: 155 Units divided in 31 sites aEach IM injection site = 0.1 mL = 5 Units BOTOX
bDose distributed bilaterally Upper Limb Spasticity Dosing in initial and sequential treatment sessions should be tailored to the individual based on the size, number and location of muscles involved, severity of spasticity, the presence of local muscle weakness, the patient's response to previous treatment, or adverse event history with BOTOX. In clinical trials, doses ranging from 75 Units to 400 Units were divided among selected muscles (see Table 3 and Figure 2) at a given treatment session. Table 3: BOTOX Dosing by Muscle for Upper Limb Spasticity
Muscle Recommended Dose Total Dosage (Number of Sites) Biceps Brachii 100 Units-200 Units divided in 4 sites Flexor Carpi Radialis 12.5 Units-50 Units in 1 site Flexor Carpi Ulnaris 12.5 Units-50 Units in 1 site Flexor Digitorum Profundus 30 Units-50 Units in 1 site Flexor Digitorum Sublimis 30 Units-50 Units in 1 site Adductor Pollicis 20 Units in 1 site Flexor Pollicis Longus 20 Units in 1 site Figure 2 : Injection Sites for Upper Limb Spasticity
The recommended dilution is 200 Units/4 mL or 100 Units/2 mL with preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP (see Table 1). The lowest recommended starting dose should be used, and no more than 50 Units per site should generally be administered. An appropriately sized needle (e.g., 25-30 gauge) may be used for superficial muscles, and a longer 22 gauge needle may be used for deeper musculature. Localization of the involved muscles with techniques such as needle electromyographic guidance or nerve stimulation is recommended. Repeat BOTOX treatment may be administered when the effect of a previous injection has diminished, but generally no sooner than 12 weeks after the previous injection. The degree and pattern of muscle spasticity at the time of re-injection may necessitate alterations in the dose of BOTOX and muscles to be injected. Cervical Dystonia A double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled patients who had extended histories of receiving and tolerating BOTOX injections, with prior individualized adjustment of dose. The mean BOTOX dose administered to patients in this study was 236 Units (25th to 75th percentile range of 198 Units to 300 Units). The BOTOX dose was divided among the affected muscles [see Clinical Studies]. Dosing in initial and sequential treatment sessions should be tailored to the individual patient based on the patient's head and neck position, localization of pain, muscle hypertrophy, patient response, and adverse event history. The initial dose for a patient without prior use of BOTOX should be at a lower dose, with subsequent dosing adjusted based on individual response. Limiting the total dose injected into the sternocleidomastoid muscle to 100 Units or less may decrease the occurrence of dysphagia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. The recommended dilution is 200 Units/2 mL, 200 Units/4 mL, 100 Units/1 mL, or 100 Units/2 mL with preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, depending on volume and number of injection sites desired to achieve treatment objectives (see Table 1). In general, no more than 50 Units per site should be administered. An appropriately sized needle (e.g., 25-30 gauge) may be used for superficial muscles, and a longer 22 gauge needle may be used for deeper musculature. Localization of the involved muscles with electromyographic guidance may be useful. Clinical improvement generally begins within the first two weeks after injection with maximum clinical benefit at approximately six weeks post-injection. In the double-blind, placebo-controlled study most subjects were observed to have returned to pre-treatment status by 3 months post-treatment. Primary Axillary Hyperhidrosis The recommended dose is 50 Units per axilla. The hyperhidrotic area to be injected should be defined using standard staining techniques, e.g., Minor's Iodine-Starch Test. The recommended dilution is 100 Units/4 mL with 0.9% preservative-free sterile saline (see Table 1). Using a 30 gauge needle, 50 Units of BOTOX (2 mL) is injected intradermally in 0.1 to 0.2 mL aliquots to each axilla evenly distributed in multiple sites (10-15) approximately 1-2 cm apart. Repeat injections for hyperhidrosis should be administered when the clinical effect of a previous injection diminishes. Instructions for the Minor’s Iodine-Starch Test Procedure: Patients should shave underarms and abstain from use of over-the-counter deodorants or antiperspirants for 24 hours prior to the test. Patient should be resting comfortably without exercise, hot drinks for approximately 30 minutes prior to the test. Dry the underarm area and then immediately paint it with iodine solution. Allow the area to dry, then lightly sprinkle the area with starch powder. Gently blow off any excess starch powder. The hyperhidrotic area will develop a deep blue-black color over approximately 10 minutes. Each injection site has a ring of effect of up to approximately 2 cm in diameter. To minimize the area of no effect, the injection sites should be evenly spaced as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3: Injection Pattern for Primary Axillary Hyperhidrosis
Each dose is injected to a depth of approximately 2 mm and at a 45° angle to the skin surface, with the bevel side up to minimize leakage and to ensure the injections remain intradermal. If injection sites are marked in ink, do not inject BOTOX directly through the ink mark to avoid a permanent tattoo effect. Blepharospasm For blepharospasm, reconstituted BOTOX is injected using a sterile, 27-30 gauge needle without electromyographic guidance. The initial recommended dose is 1.25 Units-2.5 Units (0.05 mL to 0.1 mL volume at each site) injected into the medial and lateral pre- tarsal orbicularis oculi of the upper lid and into the lateral pre-tarsal orbicularis oculi of the lower lid. Avoiding injection near the levator palpebrae superioris may reduce the complication of ptosis. Avoiding medial lower lid injections, and thereby reducing diffusion into the inferior oblique, may reduce the complication of diplopia. Ecchymosis occurs easily in the soft eyelid tissues. This can be prevented by applying pressure at the injection site immediately after the injection. The recommended dilution to achieve 1.25 Units is 50 Units/4 mL or 100 Units/8 mL; for 2.5 Units it is 50 Units/2 mL or 100 Units/4 mL (see Table 1). In general, the initial effect of the injections is seen within three days and reaches a peak at one to two weeks post-treatment. Each treatment lasts approximately three months, following which the procedure can be repeated. At repeat treatment sessions, the dose may be increased up to two-fold if the response from the initial treatment is considered insufficient, usually defined as an effect that does not last longer than two months. However, there appears to be little benefit obtainable from injecting more than 5 Units per site. Some tolerance may be found when BOTOX is used in treating blepharospasm if treatments are given any more frequently than every three months, and is rare to have the effect be permanent. The cumulative dose of BOTOX treatment for blepharospasm in a 30-day period should not exceed 200 Units. Strabismus BOTOX is intended for injection into extraocular muscles utilizing the electrical activity recorded from the tip of the injection needle as a guide to placement within the target muscle. Injection without surgical exposure or electromyographic guidance should not be attempted. Physicians should be familiar with electromyographic technique. To prepare the eye for BOTOX injection, it is recommended that several drops of a local anesthetic and an ocular decongestant be given several minutes prior to injection. The volume of BOTOX injected for treatment of strabismus should be between 0.05-0.15 mL per muscle. The initial listed doses of the reconstituted BOTOX [see Preparation and Dilution Technique] typically create paralysis of the injected muscles beginning one to two days after injection and increasing in intensity during the first week. The paralysis lasts for 2-6 weeks and gradually resolves over a similar time period. Overcorrections lasting over six months have been rare. About one half of patients will require subsequent doses because of inadequate paralytic response of the muscle to the initial dose, or because of mechanical factors such as large deviations or restrictions, or because of the lack of binocular motor fusion to stabilize the alignment. Initial Doses in Units Use the lower listed doses for treatment of small deviations. Use the larger doses only for large deviations.
  • For vertical muscles, and for horizontal strabismus of less than 20 prism diopters: 1.25 Units-2.5 Units in any one muscle.
  • For horizontal strabismus of 20 prism diopters to 50 prism diopters: 2.5 Units-5 Units in any one muscle.
  • For persistent VI nerve palsy of one month or longer duration: 1.25 Units-2.5 Units in the medial rectus muscle.
Subsequent Doses For Residual Or Recurrent Strabismus
  • It is recommended that patients be re-examined 7-14 days after each injection to assess the effect of that dose.
  • Patients experiencing adequate paralysis of the target muscle that require subsequent injections should receive a dose comparable to the initial dose.
  • Subsequent doses for patients experiencing incomplete paralysis of the target muscle may be increased up to two-fold compared to the previously administered dose.
  • Subsequent injections should not be administered until the effects of the previous dose have dissipated as evidenced by substantial function in the injected and adjacent muscles.
  • The maximum recommended dose as a single injection for any one muscle is 25 Units.
  • The recommended dilution to achieve 1.25 Units is 50 Units/4 mL or 100 Units/8 mL; for 2.5 Units it is 50 Units/2 mL or 100 Units/4 mL (see Table 1).

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Aminoglycosides And Other Agents Interfering With Neuromuscular Transmission Co-administration of BOTOX and aminoglycosides or other agents interfering with neuromuscular transmission (e.g., curare-like compounds) should only be performed with caution as the effect of the toxin may be potentiated. Anticholinergic Drugs Use of anticholinergic drugs after administration of Botox may potentiate systemic anticholinergic effects. Other Botulinum Neurotoxin Products The effect of administering different botulinum neurotoxin products at the same time or within several months of each other is unknown. Excessive neuromuscular weakness may be exacerbated by administration of another botulinum toxin prior to the resolution of the effects of a previously administered botulinum toxin. Muscle Relaxants Excessive weakness may also be exaggerated by administration of a muscle relaxant before or after administration of BOTOX. Read the Botox Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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Bladder Dysfunction Overactive Bladder BOTOX (onabotulinumtoxinA) for injection is indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency, and frequency, in adults who have an inadequate response to or are intolerant of an anticholinergic medication. Detrusor Overactivity Associated with a Neurologic Condition BOTOX is indicated for the treatment of urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition (e.g., SCI, MS) in adults who have an inadequate response to or are intolerant of an anticholinergic medication. Chronic Migraine BOTOX is indicated for the prophylaxis of headaches in adult patients with chronic migraine ( ≥ 15 days per month with headache lasting 4 hours a day or longer). Important limitations Safety and effectiveness have not been established for the prophylaxis of episodic migraine (14 headache days or fewer per month) in seven placebo-controlled studies. Upper Limb Spasticity BOTOX is indicated for the treatment of upper limb spasticity in adult patients, to decrease the severity of increased muscle tone in elbow flexors (biceps), wrist flexors (flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris), finger flexors (flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum sublimis), and thumb flexors (adductor pollicis and flexor pollicis longus). Important limitations Safety and effectiveness of BOTOX have not been established for the treatment of other upper limb muscle groups, or for the treatment of lower limb spasticity. Safety and effectiveness of BOTOX have not been established for the treatment of spasticity in pediatric patients under age 18 years. BOTOX has not been shown to improve upper extremity functional abilities, or range of motion at a joint affected by a fixed contracture. Treatment with BOTOX is not intended to substitute for usual standard of care rehabilitation regimens. Cervical Dystonia BOTOX is indicated for the treatment of adults with cervical dystonia, to reduce the severity of abnormal head position and neck pain associated with cervical dystonia. Primary Axillary Hyperhidrosis BOTOX is indicated for the treatment of severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis that is inadequately managed with topical agents. Important limitations The safety and effectiveness of BOTOX for hyperhidrosis in other body areas have not been established. Weakness of hand muscles and blepharoptosis may occur in patients who receive BOTOX for palmar hyperhidrosis and facial hyperhidrosis, respectively. Patients should be evaluated for potential causes of secondary hyperhidrosis (e.g., hyperthyroidism) to avoid symptomatic treatment of hyperhidrosis without the diagnosis and/or treatment of the underlying disease. Safety and effectiveness of BOTOX have not been established for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis in pediatric patients under age 18. Blepharospasm And Strabismus BOTOX is indicated for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm associated with dystonia, including benign essential blepharospasm or VII nerve disorders in patients 12 years of age and above.

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Known Hypersensitivity To Botulinum Toxin BOTOX is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any botulinum toxin preparation or to any of the components in the formulation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Infection At The Injection Site(s) BOTOX is contraindicated in the presence of infection at the proposed injection site(s). Urinary Tract Infection Or Urinary Retention Intradetrusor injection of BOTOX is contraindicated in patients with overactive bladder or detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition who have a urinary tract infection. Intradetrusor injection of BOTOX is also contraindicated in patients with urinary retention and in patients with post-void residual (PVR) urine volume > 200 mL, who are not routinely performing clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC). Last reviewed on RxList: 5/8/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Excessive doses of BOTOX (onabotulinumtoxinA) for injection may be expected to produce neuromuscular weakness with a variety of symptoms. Symptoms of overdose are likely not to be present immediately following injection. Should accidental injection or oral ingestion occur or overdose be suspected, the person should be medically supervised for several weeks for signs and symptoms of systemic muscular weakness which could be local, or distant from the site of injection [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. These patients should be considered for further medical evaluation and appropriate medical therapy immediately instituted, which may include hospitalization. If the musculature of the oropharynx and esophagus are affected, aspiration may occur which may lead to development of aspiration pneumonia. If the respiratory muscles become paralyzed or sufficiently weakened, intubation and assisted respiration may be necessary until recovery takes place. Supportive care could involve the need for a tracheostomy and/or prolonged mechanical ventilation, in addition to other general supportive care. In the event of overdose, antitoxin raised against botulinum toxin is available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA. However, the antitoxin will not reverse any botulinum toxin-induced effects already apparent by the time of antitoxin administration. In the event of suspected or actual cases of botulinum toxin poisoning, please contact your local or state Health Department to process a request for antitoxin through the CDC. If you do not receive a response within 30 minutes, please contact the CDC directly at 1-770-488-7100. More information can be obtained at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5232a8.htm.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths Single-use, sterile 50 Units, 100 Units, or 200 Units vacuum-dried powder for reconstitution only with sterile, preservative-free 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP prior to injection. Storage And Handling BOTOX is supplied in a single-use vial in the following sizes: 50 Units NDC 0023-3920-50
100 Units NDC 0023-1145-01
200 Units NDC 0023-3921-02 Vials of BOTOX have a holographic film on the vial label that contains the name “Allergan” within horizontal lines of rainbow color. In order to see the hologram, rotate the vial back and forth between your fingers under a desk lamp or fluorescent light source. (Note: the holographic film on the label is absent in the date/lot area.) If you do not see the lines of rainbow color or the name “Allergan”, do not use the product and contact Allergan for additional information at 1-800-890-4345 from 7:00 AM to 3:00 PM Pacific Time. Storage Unopened vials of BOTOX should be stored in a refrigerator (2° to 8°C) for up to 36 months for the 50 Units and 100 Units vials or up to 24 months for the 200 Units vial. Do not use after the expiration date on the vial. Administer BOTOX within 24 hours of reconstitution; during this period reconstituted BOTOX should be stored in a refrigerator (2° to 8°C). Reconstituted BOTOX should be clear, colorless, and free of particulate matter. Manufactured by: Allergan Pharmaceuticals Ireland a subsidiary of: Allergan, Inc. 2525 Dupont Dr. Irvine, CA 92612. Revised: 04/2015 Last reviewed on RxList: 5/8/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Lack Of Interchangeability Between Botulinum Toxin Products The potency Units of BOTOX are specific to the preparation and assay method utilized. They are not interchangeable with other preparations of botulinum toxin products and, therefore, units of biological activity of BOTOX cannot be compared to nor converted into units of any other botulinum toxin products assessed with any other specific assay method [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, DESCRIPTION]. Spread Of Toxin Effect Postmarketing safety data from BOTOX and other approved botulinum toxins suggest that botulinum toxin effects may, in some cases, be observed beyond the site of local injection. The symptoms are consistent with the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin and may include asthenia, generalized muscle weakness, diplopia, ptosis, dysphagia, dysphonia, dysarthria, urinary incontinence, and breathing difficulties. These symptoms have been reported hours to weeks after injection. Swallowing and breathing difficulties can be life threatening and there have been reports of death related to spread of toxin effects. The risk of symptoms is probably greatest in children treated for spasticity but symptoms can also occur in adults treated for spasticity and other conditions, and particularly in those patients who have an underlying condition that would predispose them to these symptoms. In unapproved uses, including spasticity in children, and in approved indications, symptoms consistent with spread of toxin effect have been reported at doses comparable to or lower than doses used to treat cervical dystonia and upper limb spasticity. Patients or caregivers should be advised to seek immediate medical care if swallowing, speech or respiratory disorders occur. No definitive serious adverse event reports of distant spread of toxin effect associated with dermatologic use of BOTOX/BOTOX Cosmetic at the labeled dose of 20 Units (for glabellar lines) or 100 Units (for severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis) have been reported. No definitive serious adverse event reports of distant spread of toxin effect associated with BOTOX for blepharospasm at the recommended dose (30 Units and below), strabismus, or for chronic migraine at the labeled doses have been reported. Hypersensitivity Reactions Serious and/or immediate hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These reactions include anaphylaxis, serum sickness, urticaria, soft tissue edema, and dyspnea. If such a reaction occurs, further injection of BOTOX should be discontinued and appropriate medical therapy immediately instituted. One fatal case of anaphylaxis has been reported in which lidocaine was used as the diluent, and consequently the causal agent cannot be reliably determined. Pre-Existing Neuromuscular Disorders Individuals with peripheral motor neuropathic diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or neuromuscular junction disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis or Lambert-Eaton syndrome) should be monitored particularly closely when given botulinum toxin. Patients with neuromuscular disorders may be at increased risk of clinically significant effects including severe dysphagia and respiratory compromise from therapeutic doses of BOTOX [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Dysphagia And Breathing Difficulties In Treatment Of Cervical Dystonia Treatment with BOTOX and other botulinum toxin products can result in swallowing or breathing difficulties. Patients with preexisting swallowing or breathing difficulties may be more susceptible to these complications. In most cases, this is a consequence of weakening of muscles in the area of injection that are involved in breathing or swallowing. When distant effects occur, additional respiratory muscles may be involved [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Deaths as a complication of severe dysphagia have been reported after treatment with botulinum toxin. Dysphagia may persist for several months, and require use of a feeding tube to maintain adequate nutrition and hydration. Aspiration may result from severe dysphagia and is a particular risk when treating patients in whom swallowing or respiratory function is already compromised. Treatment of cervical dystonia with botulinum toxins may weaken neck muscles that serve as accessory muscles of ventilation. This may result in a critical loss of breathing capacity in patients with respiratory disorders who may have become dependent upon these accessory muscles. There have been postmarketing reports of serious breathing difficulties, including respiratory failure, in cervical dystonia patients. Patients with smaller neck muscle mass and patients who require bilateral injections into the sternocleidomastoid muscle have been reported to be at greater risk for dysphagia. Limiting the dose injected into the sternocleidomastoid muscle may reduce the occurrence of dysphagia. Injections into the levator scapulae may be associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory infection and dysphagia. Patients treated with botulinum toxin may require immediate medical attention should they develop problems with swallowing, speech or respiratory disorders. These reactions can occur within hours to weeks after injection with botulinum toxin [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Pulmonary Effects of BOTOX in Patients with Compromised Respiratory Status Treated for Spasticity or for Detrusor Overactivity associated with a Neurologic Condition Patients with compromised respiratory status treated with BOTOX for upper limb spasticity should be monitored closely. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in patients with stable reduced pulmonary function (defined as FEV1 40-80% of predicted value and FEV1/FVC ≤ 0.75), the event rate in change of Forced Vital Capacity ≥ 15% or ≥ 20% was generally greater in patients treated with BOTOX than in patients treated with placebo (see Table 4). Table 4: Event rate per patient treatment cycle among patients with reduced lung function who experienced at least a 15% or 20% decrease in forced vital capacity from baseline at Week 1, 6, 12 post-injection with up to two treatment cycles with BOTOX or placebo
  BOTOX 360 Units BOTOX 240 Units Placebo ≥ 15% ≥ 20% ≥ 15% ≥ 20% ≥ 15% ≥ 20% Week 1 4% 0% 3% 0% 7% 3% Week 6 7% 4% 4% 2% 2% 2% Week 12 10% 5% 2% 1% 4% 1% Differences from placebo were not statistically significant In patients with reduced lung function, upper respiratory tract infections were also reported more frequently as adverse reactions in patients treated with BOTOX than in patients treated with placebo [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. In an ongoing double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in adult patients with detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition and restrictive lung disease of neuromuscular etiology [defined as FVC 50-80% of predicted value in patients with spinal cord injury between C5 and C8, or MS] the event rate in change of Forced Vital Capacity ≥ 15% or ≥ 20% was generally greater in patients treated with BOTOX than in patients treated with placebo (see Table 5). Table 5: Number and percent of patients experiencing at least a 15% or 20% decrease in FVC from baseline at Week 2, 6, 12 post-injection with BOTOX or placebo
  BOTOX 200 Units Placebo ≥ 15% ≥ 20% ≥ 15% ≥ 20% Week 2 0/12 (0%) 0/12 (0%) 1/11 (9%) 0/11 (0%) Week 6 2/11 (18%) 1/11 (9%) 0/11 (0%) 0/11 (0%) Week 12 0/11 (0%) 0/11 (0%) 0/6 (0%) 0/6 (0%) Corneal Exposure And Ulceration In Patients Treated With BOTOX For Blepharospasm Reduced blinking from BOTOX injection of the orbicularis muscle can lead to corneal exposure, persistent epithelial defect, and corneal ulceration, especially in patients with VII nerve disorders. Vigorous treatment of any epithelial defect should be employed. This may require protective drops, ointment, therapeutic soft contact lenses, or closure of the eye by patching or other means. Retrobulbar Hemorrhages In Patients Treated With BOTOX For Strabismus During the administration of BOTOX for the treatment of strabismus, retrobulbar hemorrhages sufficient to compromise retinal circulation have occurred. It is recommended that appropriate instruments to decompress the orbit be accessible. Bronchitis And Upper Respiratory Tract Infections In Patients Treated For Spasticity Bronchitis was reported more frequently as an adverse reaction in patients treated for upper limb spasticity with BOTOX (3% at 251 Units-360 Units total dose), compared to placebo (1%). In patients with reduced lung function treated for upper limb spasticity, upper respiratory tract infections were also reported more frequently as adverse reactions in patients treated with BOTOX (11% at 360 Units total dose; 8% at 240 Units total dose) compared to placebo (6%). Autonomic Dysreflexia In Patients Treated For Detrusor Overactivity Associated With A Neurologic Condition Autonomic dysreflexia associated with intradetrusor injections of BOTOX could occur in patients treated for detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition and may require prompt medical therapy. In clinical trials, the incidence of autonomic dysreflexia was greater in patients treated with BOTOX 200 Units compared with placebo (1.5% versus 0.4%, respectively). Urinary Tract Infections In Patients With Overactive Bladder BOTOX increases the incidence of urinary tract infection [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Clinical trials for overactive bladder excluded patients with more than 2 UTIs in the past 6 months and those taking antibiotics chronically due to recurrent UTIs. Use of BOTOX for the treatment of overactive bladder in such patients and in patients with multiple recurrent UTIs during treatment should only be considered when the benefit is likely to outweigh the potential risk. Urinary Retention In Patients Treated For Bladder Dysfunction Due to the risk of urinary retention, treat only patients who are willing and able to initiate catheterization post-treatment, if required, for urinary retention. In patients who are not catheterizing, post-void residual (PVR) urine volume should be assessed within 2 weeks post-treatment and periodically as medically appropriate up to 12 weeks, particularly in patients with multiple sclerosis or diabetes mellitus. Depending on patient symptoms, institute catheterization if PVR urine volume exceeds 200 mL and continue until PVR falls below 200 mL. Instruct patients to contact their physician if they experience difficulty in voiding as catheterization may be required. The incidence and duration of urinary retention is described below for patients with overactive bladder and detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition who received BOTOX or placebo injections. Overactive Bladder In double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with OAB, the proportion of subjects who initiated clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) for urinary retention following treatment with BOTOX or placebo is shown in Table 6. The duration of post-injection catheterization for those who developed urinary retention is also shown. Table 6: Proportion of Patients Catheterizing for Urinary Retention and Duration of Catheterization following an injection in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials in OAB
Timepoint BOTOX 100 Units
(N=552) Placebo
(N=542) Proportion of Patients Catheterizing for Urinary Retention At any time during complete treatment cycle 6.5% (n=36) 0.4% (n=2) Duration of Catheterization for Urinary Retention (Days) Median 63 11 Min, Max 1, 214 3, 18 Patients with diabetes mellitus treated with BOTOX were more likely to develop urinary retention than those without diabetes, as shown in Table 7. Table 7: Proportion of Patients Experiencing Urinary Retention following an injection in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials in OAB according to history of Diabetes Mellitus
  Patients with Diabetes Patients without Diabetes BOTOX 100 Units
(N=81) Placebo
(N=69) BOTOX 100 Units
(N=526) Placebo
(N=516) Urinary retention 12.3% (n=10) 0 6.3% (n=33) 0.6% (n=3) Detrusor Overactivity Associated with a Neurologic Condition In double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition, the proportion of subjects who were not using clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) prior to injection and who subsequently required catheterization for urinary retention following treatment with BOTOX or placebo is shown in Table 8. The duration of post-injection catheterization for those who developed urinary retention is also shown. Table 8: Proportion of Patients not using CIC at baseline and then Catheterizing for Urinary Retention and Duration of Catheterization following an injection in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials
Timepoint BOTOX 200 Units
(N=108) Placebo
(N=104) Proportion of Patients Catheterizing for Urinary Retention At any time during complete treatment cycle 30.6% (n=33) 6.7% (n=7) Duration of Catheterization for Urinary Retention (Days) Median 289 358 Min, Max 1, 530 2, 379 Among patients not using CIC at baseline, those with MS were more likely to require CIC post-injection than those with SCI (see Table 9). Table 9: Proportion of Patients by Etiology (MS and SCI) not using CIC at baseline and then Catheterizing for Urinary Retention following an injection in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials
Timepoint MS SCI BOTOX 200 Units
(N=86) Placebo
(N=88) BOTOX 200 Units
(N=22) Placebo
(N=16) At any time during complete treatment cycle 31% (n=27) 5% (n=4) 27% (n=6) 19% (n=3) Human Albumin And Transmission Of Viral Diseases This product contains albumin, a derivative of human blood. Based on effective donor screening and product manufacturing processes, it carries an extremely remote risk for transmission of viral diseases. A theoretical risk for transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is also considered extremely remote. No cases of transmission of viral diseases or CJD have ever been reported for albumin. Patient Counseling Information Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) Swallowing, Speaking or Breathing Difficulties, or Other Unusual Symptoms Advise patients to inform their doctor or pharmacist if they develop any unusual symptoms (including difficulty with swallowing, speaking, or breathing), or if any existing symptom worsens [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Ability to Operate Machinery or Vehicles Advise patients that if loss of strength, muscle weakness, blurred vision, or drooping eyelids occur, they should avoid driving a car or engaging in other potentially hazardous activities. Voiding Symptoms after Bladder Injections After bladder injections for urinary incontinence, advise patients to contact their physician if they experience difficulties in voiding or burning sensation upon voiding. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility Carcinogenesis Long term studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of BOTOX. Mutagenesis BOTOX was negative in a battery of in vitro (microbial reverse mutation assay, mammalian cell mutation assay, and chromosomal aberration assay) and in vivo (micronucleus assay) genetic toxicologic assays. Impairment of Fertility In fertility studies of BOTOX (4, 8, or 16 Units/kg) in which either male or female rats were injected intramuscularly prior to mating and on the day of mating (3 doses, 2 weeks apart for males, 2 doses, 2 weeks apart for females) to untreated animals, reduced fertility was observed in males at the intermediate and high doses and in females at the high dose. The no-effect doses for reproductive toxicity (4 Units/kg in males, 8 Units/kg in females) are approximately equal to the average high human dose for upper limb spasticity of 360 Units on a body weight basis (Units/kg). Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. BOTOX should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. When BOTOX (4, 8, or 16 Units/kg) was administered intramuscularly to pregnant mice or rats two times during the period of organogenesis (on gestation days 5 and 13), reductions in fetal body weight and decreased fetal skeletal ossification were observed at the two highest doses. The no-effect dose for developmental toxicity in these studies (4 Units/kg) is approximately 0.7 times the average high human dose for upper limb spasticity of 360 Units on a body weight basis (Units/kg). When BOTOX was administered intramuscularly to pregnant rats (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 4, or 8 Units/kg) or rabbits (0.063, 0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 Units/kg) daily during the period of organogenesis (total of 12 doses in rats, 13 doses in rabbits), reduced fetal body weights and decreased fetal skeletal ossification were observed at the two highest doses in rats and at the highest dose in rabbits. These doses were also associated with significant maternal toxicity, including abortions, early deliveries, and maternal death. The developmental no-effect doses in these studies of 1 Unit/kg in rats and 0.25 Units/kg in rabbits are less than the average high human dose based on Units/kg. When pregnant rats received single intramuscular injections (1, 4, or 16 Units/kg) at three different periods of development (prior to implantation, implantation, or organogenesis), no adverse effects on fetal development were observed. The developmental no-effect level for a single maternal dose in rats (16 Units/kg) is approximately 3 times the average high human dose based on Units/kg. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether BOTOX is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when BOTOX is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Bladder Dysfunction Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 18 years have not been established. Prophylaxis of Headaches in Chronic Migraine Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 18 years have not been established. Spasticity Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 18 years have not been established. Axillary Hyperhidrosis Safety and effectiveness in patients below the age of 18 years have not been established. Cervical Dystonia Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 16 years have not been established. Blepharospasm and Strabismus Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years have not been established. Geriatric Use Overall, with the exception of Overactive Bladder (see below), clinical studies of BOTOX did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. There were too few patients over the age of 75 to enable any comparisons. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Overactive Bladder Of 1242 overactive bladder patients in placebo-controlled clinical studies of BOTOX, 41.4% (n=514) were 65 years of age or older, and 14.7% (n=182) were 75 years of age or older. Adverse reactions of UTI and urinary retention were more common in patients 65 years of age or older in both placebo and BOTOX groups compared to younger patients (see Table 15). Otherwise, there were no overall differences in the safety profile following BOTOX treatment between patients aged 65 years and older compared to younger patients in these studies. Table 15: Incidence of Urinary Tract Infection and Urinary Retention according to Age Group during First Placebo-controlled Treatment, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trials in Patients with OAB
Adverse Reactions < 65 Years 65 to 74 Years ≥ 75 Years BOTOX 100 Units
(N=344) Placebo
(N=348) BOTOX 100 Units
(N=169) Placebo
(N=151) BOTOX 100 Units
(N=94) Placebo
(N=86) Urinary tract infection 73 (21%) 23 (7%) 51 (30%) 20 (13%) 36 (38%) 16 (19%) Urinary retention 21 (6%) 2 (0.6%) 14 (8%) 0 (0%) 8 (9%) 1 (1%) Observed effectiveness was comparable between these age groups in placebo-controlled clinical studies. Last reviewed on RxList: 5/8/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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