Drug: Cleocin I.V.

CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE Sterile Solution in vials contains clindamycin phosphate, a water soluble ester of clindamycin and phosphoric acid. Each mL contains the equivalent of 150 mg clindamycin, 0.5 mg disodium edetate and 9.45 mg benzyl alcohol added as preservative in each mL. Clindamycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent compound lincomycin. The chemical name of clindamycin phosphate is L-threo-α-D-galacto-Octopyranoside, methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-[[(1-methyl-4-propyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl] amino]-1-thio-, 2-(dihydrogen phosphate), (2S-trans)-. The molecular formula is C18H34CIN208PS and the molecular weight is 504.96. The structural formula is represented below: CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE in the ADD-Vantage Vial is intended for intravenous use only after further dilution with appropriate volume of ADD-Vantage diluent base solution. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE IV Solution in the Galaxy® plastic container for intravenous use is composed of clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 300, 600 and 900 mg of clindamycin premixed with 5% dextrose as a sterile solution. Disodium edetate has been added at a concentration of 0.04 mg/mL. The pH has been adjusted with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid. The plastic container is fabricated from a specially designed multilayer plastic, PL 2501. Solutions in contact with the plastic container can leach out certain of its chemical components in very small amounts within the expiration period. The suitability of the plastic has been confirmed in tests in animals according to the USP biological tests for plastic containers, as well as by tissue culture toxicity studies.

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The following reactions have been reported with the use of clindamycin. Gastrointestinal: Antibiotic-associated colitis (see WARNINGS), pseudomembranous colitis, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS). An unpleasant or metallic taste occasionally has been reported after intravenous administration of the higher doses of clindamycin phosphate. Hypersensitivity Reactions: Maculopapular rash and urticaria have been observed during drug therapy. Generalized mild to moderate morbilliform-like skin rashes are the most frequently reported of all adverse reactions. Rare instances of erythema multiforme, some resembling Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been associated with clindamycin. A few cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been reported. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued. The usual agents (epinephrine, corticosteroids, antihistamines) should be available for emergency treatment of serious reactions. Skin and Mucous Membranes: Pruritus, vaginitis, and rare instances of exfoliative dermatitis have been reported (see Hypersensitivity Reactions). Liver: Jaundice and abnormalities in liver function tests have been observed during clindamycin therapy. Renal: Although no direct relationship of clindamycin to renal damage has been established, renal dysfunction as evidenced by azotemia, oliguria, and/or proteinuria has been observed in rare instances. Hematopoietic: Transient neutropenia (leukopenia) and eosinophilia have been reported. Reports of agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia have been made. No direct etiologic relationship to concurrent clindamycin therapy could be made in any of the foregoing. Local Reactions: Pain, induration and sterile abscess have been reported after intramuscular injection and thrombophlebitis after intravenous infusion. Reactions can be minimized or avoided by giving deep intramuscular injections and avoiding prolonged use of indwelling intravenous catheters. Musculoskeletal: Rare instances of polyarthritis have been reported. Cardiovascular: Rare instances of cardiopulmonary arrest and hypotension have been reported following too rapid intravenous administration. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.) Read the Cleocin I.V. (clindamycin) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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If diarrhea occurs during therapy, this antibiotic should be discontinued (see WARNING box). Adults: Parenteral (IM or IV Administration): Serious infections due to aerobic gram-positive cocci and the more susceptible anaerobes (NOT generally including Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus species and Clostridium species other than Clostridium perfringens): 600–1200 mg/day in 2, 3 or 4 equal doses. More severe infections, particularly those due to proven or suspected Bacteroides fragilis, Peptococcus species, or Clostridium species other than Clostridium perfringens: 1200–2700 mg/day in 2, 3 or 4 equal doses. For more serious infections, these doses may have to be increased. In life-threatening situations due to either aerobes or anaerobes these doses may be increased. Doses of as much as 4800 mg daily have been given intravenously to adults. See Dilution and Infusion Rates section below. Single intramuscular injections of greater than 600 mg are not recommended. Alternatively, drug may be administered in the form of a single rapid infusion of the first dose followed by continuous IV infusion as follows: To maintain serum clindamycin levels Rapid infusion rate Maintenance infusion rate Above 4 mcg/mL 10 mg/min for 30 min 0.75 mg/min Above 5 mcg/mL 15 mg/min for 30 min 1.00 mg/min Above 6 mcg/mL 20 mg/min for 30 min 1.25 mg/min Neonates (less than 1 month): 15 to 20 mg/kg/day in 3 to 4 equal doses. The lower dosage may be adequate for small prematures. Pediatric patients 1 month of age to 16 years: Parenteral (IM or IV) administration: 20 to 40 mg/kg/day in 3 or 4 equal doses. The higher doses would be used for more severe infections. As an alternative to dosing on a body weight basis, pediatric patients may be dosed on the basis of square meters body surface: 350 mg/m2/day for serious infections and 450 mg/m2/day for more severe infections. Parenteral therapy may be changed to oral CLEOCIN PEDIATRIC® Flavored Granules (clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride) or CLEOCIN HCl® Capsules (clindamycin hydrochloride) when the condition warrants and at the discretion of the physician. In cases of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections, treatment should be continued for at least 10 days. Dilution and Infusion Rates: Clindamycin phosphate must be diluted prior to IV administration. The concentration of clindamycin in diluent for infusion should not exceed 18 mg per mL. Infusion rates should not exceed 30 mg per minute. The usual infusion dilutions and rates are as follows: Dose Diluent Time 300 mg 50 mL 10 min 600 mg 50 mL 20 min 900 mg 50–100 mL 30 min 1200 mg 100 mL 40 min Administration of more than 1200 mg in a single 1-hour infusion is not recommended. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Dilution and Compatibility: Physical and biological compatibility studies monitored for 24 hours at room temperature have demonstrated no inactivation or incompatibility with the use of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE Sterile Solution (clindamycin phosphate) in IV solutions containing sodium chloride, glucose, calcium or potassium, and solutions containing vitamin B complex in concentrations usually used clinically. No incompatibility has been demonstrated with the antibiotics cephalothin, kanamycin, gentamicin, penicillin or carbenicillin. The following drugs are physically incompatible with clindamycin phosphate: ampicillin sodium, phenytoin sodium, barbiturates, aminophylline, calcium gluconate, and magnesium sulfate. The compatibility and duration of stability of drug admixtures will vary depending on concentration and other conditions. For current information regarding compatibilities of clindamycin phosphate under specific conditions, please contact the Medical and Drug Information Unit, Pharmacia & Upjohn Company (Division of Pfizer Inc).. Physico-Chemical Stability of diluted solutions of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE Room temperature: 6, 9 and 12 mg/mL (equivalent to clindamycin base) in dextrose injection 5%, sodium chloride injection 0.9%, or Lactated Ringers Injection in glass bottles or minibags, demonstrated physical and chemical stability for at least 16 days at 25°C. Also, 18 mg/mL (equivalent to clindamycin base) in dextrose injection 5%, in minibags, demonstrated physical and chemical stability for at least 16 days at 25°C. Refrigeration: 6, 9 and 12 mg/mL (equivalent to clindamycin base) in dextrose injection 5%, sodium chloride injection 0.9%, or Lactated Ringers Injection in glass bottles or minibags, demonstrated physical and chemical stability for at least 32 days at 4°C. IMPORTANT: This chemical stability information in no way indicates that it would be acceptable practice to use this product well after the preparation time. Good professional practice suggests that compounded admixtures should be administered as soon after preparation as is feasible. Frozen: 6, 9 and 12 mg/mL (equivalent to clindamycin base) in dextrose injection 5%, sodium chloride injection 0.9%, or Lactated Ringers Injection in minibags demonstrated physical and chemical stability for at least eight weeks at -10°C. Frozen solutions should be thawed at room temperature and not refrozen. Directions For Dispensing Pharmacy Bulk Package - Not for Direct Infusion The Pharmacy Bulk Package is for use in a Pharmacy Admixture Service only under a laminar flow hood. Entry into the vial should be made with a small diameter sterile transfer set or other small diameter sterile dispensing device, and contents dispensed in aliquots using aseptic technique. Multiple entries with a needle and syringe are not recommended. AFTER ENTRY USE ENTIRE CONTENTS OF VIAL PROMPTLY. ANY UNUSED PORTION MUST BE DISCARDED WITHIN 24 HOURS AFTER INITIAL ENTRY. Directions For Use CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE IV Solution in Galaxy Plastic Container Premixed CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE IV Solution is for intravenous administration using sterile equipment. Check for minute leaks prior to use by squeezing bag firmly. If leaks are found, discard solution as sterility may be impaired. Do not add supplementary medication. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit. Do not use unless solution is clear and seal is intact. Caution: Do not use plastic containers in series connections. Such use could result in air embolism due to residual air being drawn from the primary container before administration of the fluid from the secondary container is complete. Preparation for Administration:
  1. Suspend container from eyelet support.
  2. Remove protector from outlet port at bottom of container.
  3. Attach administration set. Refer to complete directions accompanying set.
Preparation of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE in ADD-Vantage System - For IV Use Only. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE 600 mg and 900 mg may be reconstituted in 50 mL or 100 mL, respectively, of Dextrose Injection 5% or Sodium Chloride Injection 0.9% in the ADD-diluent container. Refer to separate instructions for ADD-Vantage‡ System.

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Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents. Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin in vitro. Because of possible clinical significance, the two drugs should not be administered concurrently. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/3/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE products are indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE products are also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis, as described in the WARNING box, before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin). Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin. Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the conditions listed below: Lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscess caused by anaerobes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (except E. faecalis), and Staphylococcus aureus. Skin and skin structure infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and anaerobes. Gynecological infections including endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis, and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection caused by susceptible anaerobes. Intra-abdominal infections including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess caused by susceptible anaerobic organisms. Septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci (except Enterococcus faecalis), and susceptible anaerobes. Bone and joint infections including acute hematogenous osteomyelitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and as adjunctive therapy in the surgical treatment of chronic bone and joint infections due to susceptible organisms. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE and other antibacterial drugs, CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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This drug is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/3/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Significant mortality was observed in mice at an intravenous dose of 855 mg/kg and in rats at an oral or subcutaneous dose of approximately 2618 mg/kg. In the mice, convulsions and depression were observed. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are not effective in removing clindamycin from the serum.

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Each mL of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE Sterile Solution contains clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 150 mg clindamycin; 0.5 mg disodium edetate; 9.45 mg benzyl alcohol added as preservative. When necessary, pH is adjusted with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE is available in the following packages: 25-2 mL vials..................................NDC 0009-0870-26
25-4 mL vials..................................NDC 0009-0775-26
25-6 mL vials..................................NDC 0009-0902-18
5-60 mL Pharmacy Bulk Package.....NDC 0009-0728-09 CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE is supplied in ADD-Vantage vials as follows: NDC Vial Size Total Clindamycin Phosphate/vial Amount of Diluent 0009-3124-03 25-4 mL Vials 600 mg 50 mL 0009-3447-03 25-6 mL vials 900 mg 100 mL Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP]. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE IV Solution in Galaxy plastic containers is a sterile solution of clindamycin phosphate with 5% dextrose. The single dose Galaxy plastic containers are available as follows: 24-300 mg/50 mL containers            NDC 0009-3381-02 24-600 mg/50 mL containers..................................NDC 0009-3375-02
24-900 mg/50 mL containers..................................NDC 0009-3382-02 Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. It is recommended that Galaxy plastic containers be stored at room temperature (25°C). Avoid temperatures above 30°C. ‡ ADD-Vantage is a registered trademark of Abbott Laboratories. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE IV Solution in the Galaxy plastic containers is manufactured for Pfizer Inc by Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL 60015. Dittributed by: Pliarmaria & Upjohn Company, Division of Pfizer Inc, NY, NY 10017. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/3/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

General Review of experience to date suggests that a subgroup of older patients with associated severe illness may tolerate diarrhea less well. When clindamycin is indicated in these patients, they should be carefully monitored for change in bowel frequency. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE products should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals. Certain infections may require incision and drainage or other indicated surgical procedures in addition to antibiotic therapy. The use of CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms - particularly yeasts. Should superinfections occur, appropriate measures should be taken as indicated by the clinical situation. CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE should not be injected intravenously undiluted as a bolus, but should be infused over at least 10–60 minutes as directed in the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section. Clindamycin dosage modification may not be necessary in patients with renal disease. In patients with moderate to severe liver disease, prolongation of clindamycin half-life has been found. However, it was postulated from studies that when given every eight hours, accumulation should rarely occur. Therefore, dosage modification in patients with liver disease may not be necessary. However, periodic liver enzyme determinations should be made when treating patients with severe liver disease. Prescribing CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Information for Patients Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible. Laboratory Tests During prolonged therapy periodic liver and kidney function tests and blood counts should be performed. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long term studies in animals have not been performed with clindamycin to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames Salmonella reversion test. Both tests were negative. Fertility studies in rats treated orally with up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 1.1 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2) revealed no effects on fertility or mating ability. Pregnancy Teratogenic effects Pregnancy category B Reproduction studies performed in rats and mice using oral doses of clindamycin up to 600 mg/kg/day (2.1 and 1.1 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) or subcutaneous doses of clindamycin up to 250 mg/kg/day (0.9 and 0.5 times the highest recommended adult human dose based on mg/m2, respectively) revealed no evidence of teratogenicity. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers Clindamycin has been reported to appear in breast milk in the range of 0.7 to 3.8 mcg/mL at dosages of 150 mg orally to 600 mg intravenously. Because of the potential for adverse reactions due to clindamycin in neonates (see Pediatric Use), the decision to discontinue the drug should be made, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use When CLEOCIN PHOSPHATE Sterile Solution is administered to the pediatric population (birth to 16 years) appropriate monitoring of organ system functions is desirable. Usage in Newborns and Infants This product contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Benzyl alcohol has been associated with a fatal "Gasping Syndrome" in premature infants. The potential for the toxic effect in the pediatric population from chemicals that may leach from the single dose premixed IV preparation in plastic has not been evaluated. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of clindamycin did not include sufficient numbers of patients age 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. However, other reported clinical experience indicates that antibiotic-associated colitis and diarrhea (due to Clostridium difficile) seen in association with most antibiotics occur more frequently in the elderly ( > 60 years) and may be more severe. These patients should be carefully monitored for the development of diarrhea. Pharmacokinetic studies with clindamycin have shown no clinically important differences between young and elderly subjects with normal hepatic function and normal (age-adjusted) renal function after oral or intravenous administration. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/3/2009
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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