Drug: Atromid-S

Atromid-S Capsules (clofibrate capsules) is ethyl 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methyl-propionate, an antilipidemic agent. Its molecular formula is C 12 H 15 O 3 Cl, molecular weight 242.7, and boiling point 148-150°C at 25 mm Hg. It is a stable, colorless to pale-yellow liquid with a faint odor and characteristic taste, soluble in common solvents but not in water. Each Atromid-S (clofibrate) Capsule contains 500 mg clofibrate for oral administration. Atromid-S Capsules (clofibrate) contain the following inactive ingredients: D&C Red No. 28, D&C Red No. 30, D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 28, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 6, gelatin. Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

The most common is nausea. Less frequently encountered gastrointestinal reactions are vomiting, loose stools, dyspepsia, flatulence, and abdominal distress. Reactions reported less often than gastrointestinal ones are headache, dizziness, and fatigue; muscle cramping, aching, and weakness; skin rash, urticaria, and pruritus; dry brittle hair, and alopecia. The following reported adverse reactions are listed alphabetically by systems: Cardiovascular Increased or decreased angina. Cardiac arrhythmias. Both swelling and phlebitis at site of xanthomas. Dermatologic Allergic reactions including urticaria. Skin rash. Pruritus. Dry skin and dry, brittle hair. Alopecia. Toxic epidermal necrolysis. Erythema multiforme. Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Gastrointestinal Gallstones. Nausea. Vomiting. Diarrhea. Gastrointestinal upset (bloating, flatulence, abdominal distress). Hepatomegaly (not associated with hepatotoxicity). Stomatitis and gastritis. Genitourinary Findings consistent with renal dysfunction as evidenced by dysuria, hematuria, proteinuria, decreased urine output. One patient's renal biopsy suggested "allergic reaction." Impotence and decreased libido. Hematologic Leukopenia. Potentiation of anticoagulant effect. Anemia. Eosinophilia. Agranulocytosis. Musculoskeletal Myalgia (muscle cramping, aching, weakness). "Flu-like" symptoms. Myositis. Myopathy. Rhabdomyolysis in the setting of preexisting renal insufficiency. Arthralgia. Neurologic Fatigue, weakness, drowsiness. Dizziness. Headache. Miscellaneous Weight gain. Polyphagia. Laboratory Findings Abnormal liver-function tests as evidenced by increased transaminase (SGOT and SGPT), BSP retention, and increased thymol turbidity. Proteinuria. Increased creatine phosphokinase. Hyperkalemia in association with renal insufficiency and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment. Reported adverse reactions whose direct relationship with the drug has not been established: peptic ulcer, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rheumatoid arthritis, tremors, increased perspiration, systemic lupus erythematosus, blurred vision, gynecomastia, thrombocytopenic purpura. Read the Atromid-S (clofibrate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Initial:  The recommended dosage for adults is 2 g daily in divided doses. Some patients may respond to a lower dosage. Maintenance:   Same as for initial dosage.

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Caution should be exercised when anticoagulants are given in conjunction with Atromid-S (clofibrate) . Usually, the dosage of the anticoagulant should be reduced by one-half (depending on the individual case) to maintain the prothrombin time at the desired level to prevent bleeding complications. Frequent prothrombin determinations are advisable until it has been determined definitely that the prothrombin level has been stabilized. Atromid-S (clofibrate) may displace acidic drugs such as phenytoin or tolbutamide from their binding sites. Caution should be exercised when treating patients with either of these drugs or other highly protein-bound drugs and Atromid-S (clofibrate) . The hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide has been reported to increase when Atromid-S (clofibrate) is given concurrently. Fulminant rhabdomyolysis has been seen as early as three weeks after initiation of combined therapy with another fibrate and lovastatin but may be seen after several months. For these reasons, it is felt that, in most subjects who have had an unsatisfactory lipid response to either drug alone, the possible benefits of combined therapy with lovastatin and a fibrate do not outweigh the risks of severe myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. While it is not known whether this interaction occurs with fibrates other than gemfibrozil, myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have occasionally been associated with the use of fibrates alone, including clofibrate. Therefore, the combined use of lovastatin with fibrates should generally be avoided. Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

The initial treatment of choice for hyperlipidemia is dietary therapy specific for the type of hyperlipidemia. 1 Excess body weight and alcoholic intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be addressed prior to any drug therapy. Physical exercise can be an important ancillary measure. Estrogen therapy, some beta-blockers, and thiazide diuretics may also be associated with increases in plasma triglycerides. Discontinuation of such products may obviate the need for specific antilipidemic therapy. Contributory diseases such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus should be looked for and adequately treated. The use of drugs should be considered only when reasonable attempts have been made to obtain satisfactory results with nondrug methods. If the decision ultimately is to use drugs, the patient should be instructed that this does not reduce the importance of adhering to diet. Because Atromid-S (clofibrate) is associated with certain serious adverse findings reported in two large clinical trials (see WARNINGS ), agents other than clofibrate may be more suitable for a particular patient. Atromid-S (clofibrate) is indicated for Primary Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III hyperlipidemia) that does not respond adequately to diet. Atromid-S (clofibrate) may be considered for the treatment of adult patients with very high serum-triglyceride levels (Type IV and V hyperlipidemia) who present a risk of abdominal pain and pancreatitis and who do not respond adequately to a determined dietary effort to control them. Patients who present such risk typically have serum triglycerides over 2000 mg/dl and have elevations of VLDL-cholesterol as well as fasting chylomicrons (Type V hyperlipidemia). Subjects who consistently have total serum or plasma triglycerides below 1000 mg/dl are unlikely to present a risk of pancreatitis. Atromid-S (clofibrate) therapy may be considered for those subjects with triglyceride elevations between 1000 and 2000 mg/dl who have a history of pancreatitis or of recurrent abdominal pain typical of pancreatitis. It is recognized that some Type IV patients with triglycerides under 1000 mg/dl may, through dietary or alcoholic indiscretion, convert to a Type V pattern with massive triglyceride elevations accompanying fasting chylomicronemia, but the influence of Atromid-S (clofibrate) therapy on the risk of pancreatitis in such situations has not been adequately studied. Atromid-S (clofibrate) is not useful for the hypertriglyceridemia of Type I hyperlipidemia, where elevations of chylomicrons and plasma triglycerides are accompanied by normal levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Inspection of plasma refrigerated for 12 to 14 hours is helpful in distinguishing Types I, IV, and V hyperlipoproteinemia. 2 Atromid-S (clofibrate) has not been shown to be effective for prevention of coronary heart disease. The biochemical response to Atromid-S (clofibrate) is variable, and it is not always possible to predict from the lipoprotein type or other factors which patients will obtain favorable results. LDL cholesterol, as well as triglycerides, should be rechecked during the first several months of therapy in order to detect rises in LDL cholesterol that often accompany fibric-acid-type drug-induced reductions in elevated triglycerides. It is essential that lipid levels be reassessed periodically and that the drug be discontinued in any patient in whom lipids do not show significant improvement.

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Clofibrate is contraindicated in pregnant women. While teratogenic studies have not demonstrated any effect attributable to clofibrate, it is known that serum of the rabbit fetus accumulates a higher concentration of clofibrate than that found in maternal serum, and it is possible that the fetus may not have developed the enzyme system required for the excretion of clofibrate. It is contraindicated in patients with clinically significant hepatic or renal dysfunction. Rhabdomyolysis and severe hyperkalemia have been reported in association with pre-existing renal insufficiency. It is contraindicated in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, since it may raise the already elevated cholesterol in these cases. It is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to clofibrate. It is contraindicated in nursing women (see PRECAUTIONS ). Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

While there has been no reported case of overdosage, should it occur, symptomatic supportive measures should be taken.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Atromid-S Capsules (clofibrate capsules) Each orange, oblong, soft-gelatin capsule contains 500 mg clofibrate, in bottles of 100 (NDC 0046-0243-81). The appearance of these orange, oblong, soft-gelatin capsules is a trademark of Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories. Store at room temperature, approximately 25° C (77° F). Dispense in a well-closed, light-resistant container as defined in the USP. Avoid freezing and excessive heat.   REFERENCES
  1. Coronary Risk Handbook (1973). American Heart Association.
  2. Nikkila, EA: Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency and related disorders of chylomicron metabolism. In Stanbury JB et al (eds): The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, 1983, Chap. 30. p.622-642.
  3. Report from the Committee of Principal Investigators: A cooperative trial in the primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease using clofibrate. Br Heart J 40  :1069, 1978.
  4. The Coronary Drug Project Research Group: Clofibrate and niacin in coronary heart disease. JAMA 231  :360, 1975.
  Manufactured for
Ayerst Laboratories Inc.
A Wyeth-Ayerst Company
Philadelphia, PA 19101
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

General Before instituting therapy with clofibrate, attempts should be made to control serum lipids with appropriate dietary regimens, weight loss in obese patients, control of diabetes mellitus, etc. Because of the long-term administration of a drug of this nature, adequate baseline studies should be performed to determine that the patient has significantly elevated serum lipid levels. Frequent determinations of serum lipids should be obtained during the first few months of Atromid-S (clofibrate) administration, and periodic determinations made thereafter. The drug should be withdrawn after three months if response is inadequate. However, in the case of xanthoma tuberosum, the drug should be employed for longer periods (even up to one year) provided that there is a reduction in the size and/or number of the xanthomata. Since cholelithiasis is a possible side effect of clofibrate therapy, appropriate diagnostic procedures should be performed if signs and symptoms related to disease of the biliary system should occur. Clofibrate may produce "flu-like" symptoms (muscular aching, soreness, cramping) associated with increased creatine kinase levels indicative of drug-induced myopathy. The physician should differentiate this from actual viral and/or bacterial disease. Use with caution in patients with peptic ulcer, since reactivation has been reported. Whether this is drug related is unknown. Various cardiac arrhythmias have been reported with the use of clofibrate. Laboratory Tests Subsequent serum lipid determinations should be done to detect a paradoxical rise in serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. Clofibrate will not alter the seasonal variations of serum cholesterol: peak elevations in midwinter and late summer and decreases in fall and spring. If the drug is discontinued, the patient should be continued on an appropriate hypolipidemic diet, and serum lipids should be monitored until stabilized, as a rise in these values to or above the original baseline may occur. During clofibrate therapy, frequent serum-transaminase determinations and other liver-function tests should be performed, since the drug may produce abnormalities in these parameters. These effects are usually reversible when the drug is discontinued. Hepatic biopsies are usually within normal limits. If the hepatic-function tests steadily rise or show excessive abnormalities, the drug should be withdrawn. Therefore, use with caution in those patients with a past history of jaundice or hepatic disease. Complete blood counts should be done periodically since anemia, and more frequently, leukopenia have been reported in patients who have been taking clofibrate.   Drug Interactions Caution should be exercised when anticoagulants are given in conjunction with Atromid-S (clofibrate) . Usually, the dosage of the anticoagulant should be reduced by one-half (depending on the individual case) to maintain the prothrombin time at the desired level to prevent bleeding complications. Frequent prothrombin determinations are advisable until it has been determined definitely that the prothrombin level has been stabilized. Atromid-S (clofibrate) may displace acidic drugs such as phenytoin or tolbutamide from their binding sites. Caution should be exercised when treating patients with either of these drugs or other highly protein-bound drugs and Atromid-S (clofibrate) . The hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide has been reported to increase when Atromid-S (clofibrate) is given concurrently. Fulminant rhabdomyolysis has been seen as early as three weeks after initiation of combined therapy with another fibrate and lovastatin but may be seen after several months. For these reasons, it is felt that, in most subjects who have had an unsatisfactory lipid response to either drug alone, the possible benefits of combined therapy with lovastatin and a fibrate do not outweigh the risks of severe myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. While it is not known whether this interaction occurs with fibrates other than gemfibrozil, myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have occasionally been associated with the use of fibrates alone, including clofibrate. Therefore, the combined use of lovastatin with fibrates should generally be avoided. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility See WARNINGS section for information on carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Arrest of spermatogenesis has been seen in both dogs and monkeys at doses approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose (based on surface area). Electron microscopy studies have demonstrated peroxisomal proliferation following clofibrate administration to the rat. Changes in peroxisome morphology and numbers have been observed in humans after treatment with several members of the fibrate class, including clofibrate, when liver biopsies were compared before and after treatment in the same individual. Pregnancy Teratogenic effects Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Atromid-S (clofibrate) . It is also not known whether Atromid-S (clofibrate) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. However, animal reproduction studies with clofibrate plus androsterone showed increases in neonatal deaths and pup mortality during lactation. Nursing Mothers Atromid-S (clofibrate) is contraindicated in lactating women, since an active metabolite (CPIB) has been measured in breast milk. Pediatric Use Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients have not been established. Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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