Drug: Dilacor XR

Dilacor XR® (diltiazem hydrochloride) is a calcium ion influx inhibitor (slow channel blocker or calcium antagonist). Chemically, diltiazem hydrochloride is 1,5-Benzothiazepin-4(5H)one, 3-(acetyloxy)-5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-, monohydrochloride, (+)-cis-. Its molecular formula is C22H26N2O4S•HCl and its molecular weight is 450.98. Its structural formula is as follows: Diltiazem hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a bitter taste. It is soluble in water, methanol, and chloroform. Dilacor XR complies with USP Drug Release Test #2. Dilacor XR capsules contain multiple units of diltiazem HCl extended-release 60 mg, resulting in 120 mg, 180 mg, or 240 mg dosage strengths allowing for the controlled release of diltiazem HCl over a 24-hour period. Inactive Ingredients: Dilacor XR capsules also contain mannitol, ethyl cellulose, hypromellose, hydrogenated castor oil, ferric oxides, silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, gelatin, D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Red No. 40, D&C Red No. 28, and titanium dioxide. The 120 mg dosage form contains pregelatinized starch. For oral administration.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Serious adverse reactions to diltiazem hydrochloride have been rare in studies with other formulations, as well as with Dilacor XR®. It should be recognized, however, that patients with impaired ventricular function and cardiac conduction abnormalities have usually been excluded from these studies. Hypertension The most common adverse events (frequency ≥ 1%) in placebo-controlled, clinical hypertension studies with Dilacor XR using daily doses up to 540 mg, are listed in the table below with placebo-treated patients included for comparison. MOST COMMON ADVERSE EVENTS IN DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED HYPERTENSION TRIALS
Adverse Events (COSTART Term) Dilacor XR®*
n=303
# pts (%) Placebo
n=87
# pts (%) rhinitis 29 (9.6) 7 (8.0) headache 27 (8.9) 12 (13.8) pharyngitis 17 (5.6) 4 (4.6) constipation 11 (3.6) 2 (2.3) cough increase 9 (3.0) 2 (2.3) flu syndrome 7 (2.3) 1 (1.1) edema, peripheral 7 (2.3) 0 (0.0) myalgia 7 (2.3) 0 (0.0) diarrhea 6 (2.0) 0 (0.0) vomiting 6 (2.0) 0 (0.0) sinusitis 6 (2.0) 1 (1.1) asthenia 5 (1.7) 0 (0.0) pain, back 5 (1.7) 2 (2.3) nausea 5 (1.7) 1 (1.1) dyspepsia 4 (1.3) 0 (0.0) vasodilatation 4 (1.3) 0 (0.0) injury, accident 4 (1.3) 0 (0.0) pain, abdominal 3 (1.0) 0 (0.0) arthrosis 3 (1.0) 0 (0.0) insomnia 3 (1.0) 0 (0.0) dyspnea 3 (1.0) 0 (0.0) rash 3 (1.0) 1 (1.1) tinnitus 3 (1.0) 0 (0.0) *Adverse events occurring in 1% or more of patients receiving Dilacor XR. Angina The most common adverse events (frequency ≥ 1%) in a placebo-controlled, short-term (2 week) clinical angina study with Dilacor XR are listed in the table below with placebo-treated patients included for comparison. In this trial, following a placebo phase, patients were randomly assigned to once daily doses of either 120, 240, or 480 mg of Dilacor XR. MOST COMMON ADVERSE EVENTS IN A DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED SHORT-TERM, ANGINA TRIALS
Adverse Events (COSTART Term) Dilacor XR®*
n=139
# pts (%) Placebo
n=50
# pts (%) asthenia 5 (3.6) 2 (4.0) headache 4 (2.9) 3 (6.0) pain, back 4 (2.9) 1 (2.0) rhinitis 4 (2.9) 1 (2.0) constipation 3 (2.2) 1 (2.0) nausea 3 (2.2) 0 (0.0) edema, peripheral 3 (2.2) 1 (2.0) dizziness 3 (2.2) 0 (0.0) cough, increased 3 (2.2) 0 (0.0) bradycardia 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) fibrillation, atrial 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) arthralgia 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) dream, abnormal 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) dyspnea 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) pharyngitis 2 (1.4) 1 (2.0) *Adverse events occurring in 1% or more of patients receiving Dilacor XR. Infrequent Adverse Events The following additional events (COSTART Terms), listed by body system, were reported infrequently (less than 1%) in all subjects, hypertensive (n=425) or angina (n=318) patients who received Dilacor XR, or with other formulations of diltiazem. Hypertension Cardiovascular: First-degree AV block, arrhythmia, postural hypotension, tachycardia, pallor, palpitations, phlebitis, ECG abnormality, ST elevation. Nervous System: Vertigo, hypertonia, paresthesia, dizziness, somnolence. Digestive System: Dry mouth, anorexia, tooth disorder, eructation. Skin and Appendages: Sweating, urticaria, skin hypertrophy (nevus). Respiratory System: Epistaxis, bronchitis, respiratory disorder. Urogenital System: Cystitis, kidney calculus, impotence, dysmenorrhea, vaginitis, prostate disease. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Gout, edema. Musculoskeletal System: Arthralgia, bursitis, bone pain. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Lymphadenopathy. Body as a Whole: Pain, unevaluable reaction, neck pain, neck rigidity, fever, chest pain, malaise. Special Senses: Amblyopia (blurred vision), ear pain. Angina Cardiovascular: Palpitations, AV block, sinus bradycardia, bigeminal extrasystole, angina pectoris, hypertension, hypotension, myocardial infarct, myocardial ischemia, syncope, vasodilatation, ventricular extrasystole. Nervous System: Abnormal thinking, neuropathy, paresthesia. Digestive System: Diarrhea, dyspepsia, vomiting, colitis, flatulence, GI hemorrhage, stomach ulcers. Skin and Appendages: Contact dermatitis, pruritus, sweating. Respiratory System: Respiratory distress. Urogenital System: Kidney failure, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Weight increase. Musculoskeletal System: Myalgia. Body as a Whole: Chest pain, accidental injury, infection. Special Senses: Eye hemorrhage, ophthalmitis, otitis media, taste perversion, tinnitus. There have been post-marketing reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with the use of diltiazem hydrochloride. Read the Dilacor XR (diltiazem hydrochloride capsule, extended release) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Hypertensive or anginal patients who are treated with other formulations of diltiazem can safely be switched to Dilacor XR capsules at the nearest equivalent total daily dose. Subsequent titration to higher or lower doses may, however, be necessary and should be initiated as clinically indicated. Studies have shown a slight increase in the rate of absorption of Dilacor XR when ingested with a high-fat breakfast; therefore, administration in the morning on an empty stomach is recommended. Patients should be cautioned that the Dilacor XR capsules should not be opened, chewed or crushed, and should be swallowed whole. Dosage Hypertension: Dosages must be adjusted to each patient's needs, starting with 180 mg or 240 mg once daily. Based on the antihypertensive effect, the dose may be adjusted as needed. Individual patients, particularly ≥ 60 years of age, may respond to a lower dose of 120 mg. The usual dosage range studied in clinical trials was 180 mg to 480 mg once daily. Current clinical experience with the 540 mg dose is limited; the dose may be increased to 540 mg with little or no increased risk of adverse reactions. Doses should not exceed 540 mg once daily. While a dose of Dilacor XR given once daily may produce an antihypertensive effect similar to the same total daily dose given in divided doses, individual dose adjustment may be needed. Angina: Dosages for the treatment of angina should be adjusted to each patient's needs, starting with a dose of 120 mg once daily, which may be titrated to doses of up to 480 mg once daily. When necessary, titration may be carried out over a 7 to 14 day period. Concomitant Use with Other Cardiovascular Agents Sublingual Nitroglycerin may be taken as required to abort acute anginal attacks during diltiazem hydrochloride therapy. Prophylactic Nitrate Therapy – Diltiazem hydrochloride may be safely co-administered with short- and long-acting nitrates. Beta-blockers. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.) Antihypertensives – Diltiazem hydrochloride has an additive antihypertensive effect when used with other antihypertensive agents. Therefore, the dosage of diltiazem hydrochloride or the concomitant antihypertensives may need to be adjusted when adding one to the other.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Due to the potential for additive effects, caution and careful titration are warranted in patients receiving diltiazem hydrochloride concomitantly with any agents known to affect cardiac contractility and/or conduction. (See WARNINGS.) Pharmacologic studies indicate that there may be additive effects in prolonging AV conduction when using beta-blockers or digitalis concomitantly with diltiazem hydrochloride. (See WARNINGS.) As with all drugs, care should be exercised when treating patients with multiple medications. Diltiazem hydrochloride undergoes biotransformation by cytochrome P-450 mixed function oxidase. Co-administration of diltiazem hydrochloride with other agents which follow the same route of biotransformation may result in the competitive inhibition of metabolism. Especially in patients with renal and/or hepatic impairment, dosages of similarly metabolized drugs, particularly those of low therapeutic ratio such as cyclosporine, may require adjustment when starting or stopping concomitantly administered diltiazem hydrochloride to maintain optimum therapeutic blood levels. Concomitant administration of diltiazem with carbamazepine has been reported to result in elevated plasma levels of carbamazepine, resulting in toxicity in some cases. Beta-Blockers: Controlled and uncontrolled domestic studies suggest that concomitant use of diltiazem hydrochloride and beta-blockers is usually well-tolerated, but available data are not sufficient to predict the effects of concomitant treatment in patients with left ventricular dysfunction or cardiac conduction abnormalities. Administration of diltiazem hydrochloride concomitantly with propranolol in five normal volunteers resulted in increased propranolol levels in all subjects and the bioavailability of propranolol was increased approximately 50%. If combination therapy is initiated or withdrawn in conjunction with propranolol, an adjustment in the propranolol dose may be warranted. (See WARNINGS.) Cimetidine: A study in six healthy volunteers has shown a significant increase in peak diltiazem plasma levels (58%) and area-under-the-curve (53%) after a 1 week course of cimetidine at 1,200 mg per day and diltiazem 60 mg per day. Ranitidine produced smaller, nonsignificant increases. The effect may be mediated by cimetidine's known inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P-450, the enzyme system responsible for the first-pass metabolism of diltiazem. Patients currently receiving diltiazem therapy should be carefully monitored for a change in pharmacological effect when initiating and discontinuing therapy with cimetidine. An adjustment in the diltiazem dose may be warranted. Clonidine: Sinus bradycardia resulting in hospitalization and pacemaker insertion has been reported in association with the use of clonidine concurrently with diltiazem. Monitor heart rate in patients receiving concomitant diltiazem and clonidine. Digitalis: Administration of diltiazem hydrochloride with digoxin in 24 healthy male subjects increased plasma digoxin concentrations approximately 20%. Another investigator found no increase in digoxin levels in 12 patients with coronary artery disease. Since there have been conflicting results regarding the effects of digoxin levels, it is recommended that digoxin levels be monitored when initiating, adjusting, and discontinuing diltiazem hydrochloride therapy to avoid possible over- or under-digitalization. (See WARNINGS.) Anesthetics: The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium channel blockers should be titrated carefully. Statins: Diltiazem is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and has been shown to increase significantly the AUC of some statins. The risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with statins metabolized by CYP3A4 may be increased with concomitant use of diltiazem. When possible, use a non-CYP3A4-metabolized statin with diltiazem; otherwise, dose adjustments for both diltiazem and the statin should be considered along with close monitoring for signs and symptoms of any statin related adverse events. In a healthy volunteer cross-over study (N=10), co-administration of a single 20 mg dose of simvastatin at the end of a 14 day regimen with 120 mg twice daily diltiazem SR resulted in a 5-fold higher mean simvastatin AUC compared with simvastatin alone. High average steady-state exposures of diltiazem would result in a greater increase in simvastatin exposure. A daily dose of 480 mg of diltiazem would be expected to result in an 8-fold higher mean simvastatin AUC compared with simvastatin alone. If coadministration of simvastatin with diltiazem is required, limit the daily doses of simvastatin to 10 mg and diltiazem to 240 mg. In a ten-subject randomized, open label, 4-way cross-over study, co-administration of diltiazem (120 mg twice daily diltiazem SR for 2 weeks) with a single 20 mg dose of lovastatin resulted in 3-to 4- fold higher mean lovastatin AUC and Cmax values compared with lovastatin alone. In the same study, there was no significant change in 20 mg single dose pravastatin AUC and Cmax during diltiazem coadministration.Read the Dilacor XR Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Dilacor XR is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Diltiazem hydrochloride may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive medications, such as diuretics. Dilacor XR is indicated for the management of chronic stable angina.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Diltiazem hydrochloride is contraindicated in: (1) patients with sick sinus syndrome except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker; (2) patients with second or third degree AV block except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker; (3) patients with hypotension (less than 90 mmHg systolic); (4) patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the drug; and (5) patients with acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary congestion as documented by X-ray on admission.Last reviewed on RxList: 7/8/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Overdosage Or Exaggerated Response Several literature reports have identified cases of diltiazem hydrochloride overdose, some with multiple drug ingestion, with both fatal and non-fatal outcomes. The reported events affected multiple body systems including the cardiovascular system (bradycardia, complete heart block, asystole, cardiac failure, arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, palpitations, hypotension, ischemia, ECG changes), respiratory system (respiratory failure, hypoxia, dyspnea, pulmonary edema), central nervous system (loss of consciousness, convulsions, dizziness, confusion, agitation), gastrointestinal system (nausea, vomiting), skin and appendages (increased sweating), and other systems (hypotonia, iliac artery thrombosis, metabolic acidosis, increased blood glucose). The administration of ipecac to induce vomiting and activated charcoal to reduce drug absorption have been advocated as initial means of intervention. In addition to gastric lavage, the following measures should also be considered: Bradycardia: administer atropine (0.6 mg to 1 mg). If there is no response to vagal blockade, administer isoproterenol cautiously. High-Degree AV Block: Treat as for bradycardia above. Fixed high-degree AV block should be treated with cardiac pacing. Cardiac Failure: Administer inotropic agents (dopamine or dobutamine) and diuretics. Hypotension: Vasopressors (e.g., dopamine or levarterenol bitartrate). Actual treatment and dosage should depend on the severity of the clinical situation as well as the judgment and experience of the treating physician. Due to extensive metabolism, plasma concentrations after a standard dose of diltiazem can vary over tenfold, which significantly limits their value in evaluating cases of overdosage. Charcoal hemoperfusion has been used successfully as an adjunct therapy to hasten drug elimination. Overdoses with as much as 10.8 grams of oral diltiazem have been successfully treated using appropriate supportive care.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Strength Size NDC 52544­ Color Markings 120 mg Bottles of 30 732-30 gold cap Dilacor XR 120 mg Bottles of 100 732-01 white body Bottles of 1000 732-10 180 mg Bottles of 30 733-30 orange cap Dilacor XR 180 mg Bottles of 100 733-01 white body Unit Dose 100 733-44 Bottles of 1000 733-10 240 mg Bottles of 30 734-30 brown cap Dilacor XR 240 mg Bottles of 100 734-01 white body Unit Dose 100 734-44 Bottles of 1000 734-10 National Stock Number Strength Size NSN 120 mg Bottles of 100 6505-01-365-8942 Bottles of 1000 6505-01-393-7440 180 mg Bottles of 100 6505-01-355-3602 Bottles of 1000 6505-01-393-7319 240 mg Bottles of 100 6505-01-355-3601 Bottles of 1000 6505-01-393-7437   Store at Controlled Room Temperature: 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP]. Keep out of the reach of children Manufactured for: WATSON Pharma, Inc. A Subsidiary of Watson Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Corona, CA 92880. Manufactured by: SkyePharma Production SAS St-Quentin-Fallavier Cedex, France. Revised: March 2011,Last reviewed on RxList: 7/8/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

General Diltiazem hydrochloride is extensively metabolized by the liver and is excreted by the kidneys and in bile. As with any drug given over prolonged periods, laboratory parameters should be monitored at regular intervals. The drug should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function. In subacute and chronic dog and rat studies designed to produce toxicity, high doses of diltiazem were associated with hepatic damage. In special subacute hepatic studies, oral doses of 125 mg/kg and higher in rats were associated with histological changes in the liver which were reversible when the drug was discontinued. In dogs, doses of 20 mg/kg were also associated with hepatic changes; however, these changes were reversible with continued dosing. Dermatological events (see ADVERSE REACTIONS) may be transient and may disappear despite continued use of diltiazem hydrochloride. However, skin eruptions progressing to erythema multiforme and/or exfoliative dermatitis have also been infrequently reported. Should a dermatologic reaction persist, the drug should be discontinued. Although Dilacor XR utilizes a slowly disintegrating matrix, caution should still be used in patients with preexisting severe gastrointestinal narrowing (pathologic or iatrogenic). There have been no reports of obstructive symptoms in patients with known strictures in association with the ingestion of Dilacor XR. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: A 24-month study in rats and an 18-month study in mice showed no evidence of carcinogenicity. There was also no mutagenic response in vitro or in vivo in mammalian cell assays or in vitro in bacteria. No evidence of impaired fertility was observed in male or female rats at oral doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day. Pregnancy Category C: Reproduction studies have been conducted in mice, rats, and rabbits. Administration of doses ranging from 4 to 6 times (depending on species) the upper limit of the optimum dosage range in clinical trials (480 mg once daily or 8 mg/kg once daily for a 60 kg patient) has resulted in embryo and fetal lethality. These studies have revealed, in one species or another, a propensity to cause abnormalities of the skeleton, heart, retina, and tongue. Also observed were reductions in early individual pup weights and pup survival, prolonged delivery, and increased incidence of stillbirths. There are no well-controlled studies in pregnant women; therefore, use diltiazem hydrochloride in pregnant women only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nursing Mothers Diltiazem is excreted in human milk. One report suggests that concentrations in breast milk may approximate serum levels. If use of diltiazem hydrochloride is deemed essential, an alternate method of infant feeding should be instituted. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Last reviewed on RxList: 7/8/2011
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Health Services in

Drug Database Online

Welcome to Women's Health Care an online drug guide and dictionary, here you can get drug information and definitaions for most popular pharmaceutical and medicinal drugs, and specifically Dilacor XR. Find what medications you are taking today.