Drug: Atripla

ATRIPLA is a fixed-dose combination tablet containing efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF). SUSTIVA is the brand name for efavirenz, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. EMTRIVA is the brand name for emtricitabine, a synthetic nucleoside analog of cytidine. VIREAD is the brand name for tenofovir DF, which is converted in vivo to tenofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (nucleotide) analog of adenosine 5'-monophosphate. VIREAD and EMTRIVA are the components of TRUVADA. ATRIPLA tablets are for oral administration. Each tablet contains 600 mg of efavirenz, 200 mg of emtricitabine, and 300 mg of tenofovir DF (which is equivalent to 245 mg of tenofovir disoproxil) as active ingredients. The tablets include the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium lauryl sulfate. The tablets are film-coated with a coating material containing black iron oxide, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, red iron oxide, talc, and titanium dioxide. Efavirenz: Efavirenz is chemically described as (S)-6-chloro-4-(cyclopropylethynyl)-1,4dihydro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-3,1-benzoxazin-2-one. Its molecular formula is C14H9ClF3NO2 and its structural formula is: Efavirenz is a white to slightly pink crystalline powder with a molecular mass of 315.68. It is practically insoluble in water (less than 10 μg/mL). Emtricitabine: The chemical name of emtricitabine is 5-fluoro-1-(2R,5S)-[2(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl]cytosine. Emtricitabine is the (-) enantiomer of a thio analog of cytidine, which differs from other cytidine analogs in that it has a fluorine in the 5-position. It has a molecular formula of C8H10FN3O3S and a molecular weight of 247.24. It has the following structural formula: Emtricitabine is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a solubility of approximately 112 mg/mL in water at 25 oC. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Tenofovir DF is a fumaric acid salt of the bisisopropoxycarbonyloxymethyl ester derivative of tenofovir. The chemical name of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is 9-[(R)-2[[bis[[(isopropoxycarbonyl)oxy]methoxy]phosphinyl]methoxy]propyl]adenine fumarate (1:1). It has a molecular formula of C19H30N5O10P •C4H4O4 and a molecular weight of 635.52. It has the following structural formula: Tenofovir DF is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a solubility of 13.4 mg/mL in water at 25 °C.

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Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: The following adverse reactions are discussed in other sections of the labeling:
  • Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis [See BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Severe Acute Exacerbations of Hepatitis B [See BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Psychiatric Symptoms [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Nervous System Symptoms [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • New Onset or Worsening Renal Impairment [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Rash [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Hepatotoxicity [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Bone Effects of Tenofovir DF [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Immune Reconstitution Syndrome [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Drug Interactions [See CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS].
For additional safety information about SUSTIVA (efavirenz), EMTRIVA (emtricitabine), or VIREAD (tenofovir DF) in combination with other antiretroviral agents, consult the prescribing information for these products. Adverse Reactions From Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Clinical Trials in Adult Subjects Study 934 Study 934 was an open-label active-controlled trial in which 511 antiretroviral-naive subjects received either emtricitabine + tenofovir DF administered in combination with efavirenz (N=257) or zidovudine/lamivudine administered in combination with efavirenz (N=254). The most common adverse reactions (incidence greater than or equal to 10%, any severity) occurring in Study 934 include diarrhea, nausea, fatigue, headache, dizziness, depression, insomnia, abnormal dreams, and rash. Adverse reactions observed in Study 934 were generally consistent with those seen in previous trials of the individual components (Table 2). Table 2 : Selected Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactionsa (Grades 2–4) Reported in ≥ 5% in Either Treatment Group in Study 934 (0–144 Weeks)
  FTC + TDF + EFVb
N=257 AZT/3TC + EFV
N=254 Gastrointestinal Disorder   Diarrhea 9% 5%   Nausea 9% 7%   Vomiting 2% 5% General Disorders and Administration Site Condition   Fatigue 9% 8% Infections and Infestations   Sinusitis 8% 4%   Upper respiratory tract infections 8% 5%   Nasopharyngitis 5% 3% Nervous System Disorders   Headache 6% 5%   Dizziness 8% 7% Psychiatric Disorders   Anxiety 5% 4%   Depression 9% 7%   Insomnia 5% 7% Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders   Rash Eventc 7% 9% a Frequencies of adverse reactions are based on all treatment-emergent adverse events, regardless of relationship to study drug.
b From Weeks 96 to 144 of the trial, subjects received emtricitabine/tenofovir DF administered in combination with efavirenz in place of emtricitabine + tenofovir DF with efavirenz.
c Rash event includes rash, exfoliative rash, rash generalized, rash macular, rash maculopapular, rash pruritic, and rash vesicular. Study 073 In Study 073, subjects with stable, virologic suppression on antiretroviral therapy and no history of virologic failure were randomized to receive ATRIPLA or to stay on their baseline regimen. The adverse reactions observed in Study 073 were generally consistent with those seen in Study 934 and those seen with the individual components of ATRIPLA when each was administered in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, or Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate In addition to the adverse reactions in Study 934 and Study 073, the following adverse reactions were observed in clinical trials of efavirenz, emtricitabine, or tenofovir DF in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Efavirenz The most significant adverse reactions observed in subjects treated with efavirenz are nervous system symptoms [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS], psychiatric symptoms [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS], and rash [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Selected adverse reactions of moderate-to-severe intensity observed in greater than or equal to 2% of efavirenz-treated subjects in two controlled clinical trials included pain, impaired concentration, abnormal dreams, somnolence, anorexia, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, nervousness, and pruritus. Pancreatitis has also been reported, although a causal relationship with efavirenz has not been established. Asymptomatic increases in serum amylase levels were observed in a significantly higher number of subjects treated with efavirenz 600 mg than in control subjects. Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Adverse reactions that occurred in at least 5% of treatment-experienced or treatment-naive subjects receiving emtricitabine or tenofovir DF with other antiretroviral agents in clinical trials include arthralgia, increased cough, dyspepsia, fever, myalgia, pain, abdominal pain, back pain, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy (including peripheral neuritis and neuropathy), pneumonia, rhinitis and rash event (including rash, pruritus, maculopapular rash, urticaria, vesiculobullous rash, pustular rash, and allergic reaction). Skin discoloration has been reported with higher frequency among emtricitabine-treated subjects; it was manifested by hyperpigmentation on the palms and/or soles and was generally mild and asymptomatic. The mechanism and clinical significance are unknown. Clinical Trials in Pediatric Subjects Efavirenz Assessment of adverse reactions is based on three pediatric clinical trials in 182 HIV-1 infected pediatric subjects 3 months to 21 years of age, who received efavirenz in combination with other antiretroviral agents for a median of 123 weeks. The type and frequency of adverse reactions in the three trials were generally similar to that of adult subjects with the exception of a higher incidence of rash, which was reported in 32% (59/182) of pediatric subjects compared to 26% of adults, and a higher frequency of Grade 3 or 4 rash reported in 3% (6/182) of pediatric subjects compared to 0.9% of adults [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. For additional information, please consult the SUSTIVA prescribing information. Emtricitabine In addition to the adverse reactions reported in adults, anemia and hyperpigmentation were observed in 7% and 32%, respectively, of pediatric subjects (3 months to less than 18 years of age) who received treatment with emtricitabine in the larger of two open-label, uncontrolled pediatric trials (N=116). For additional information, please consult the EMTRIVA prescribing information. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate In a pediatric clinical trial conducted in subjects 12 to less than 18 years of age, the adverse reactions observed in pediatric subjects who received treatment with tenofovir DF were consistent with those observed in clinical trials of tenofovir DF in adults [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Laboratory Abnormalities Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Laboratory abnormalities observed in Study 934 were generally consistent with those seen in previous trials (Table 3). Table 3 : Significant Laboratory Abnormalities Reported in ≥ 1% of Subjects in Either Treatment Group in Study 934 (0–144 Weeks)
  FTC + TDF + EFVa
N=257 AZT/3TC + EFV
N=254 Any ≥ Grade 3 Laboratory Abnormality 30% 26% Fasting Cholesterol ( > 240 mg/dL) 22% 24% Creatine Kinase (M: > 990 U/L) (F: > 845 U/L) 9% 7% Serum Amylase ( > 175 U/L) 8% 4% Alkaline Phosphatase ( > 550 U/L) 1% 0% AST (M: > 180 U/L) (F: > 170 U/L) 3% 3% ALT (M: > 215 U/L) (F: > 170 U/L) 2% 3% Hemoglobin ( < 8.0 mg/dL) 0% 4% Hyperglycemia ( > 250 mg/dL) 2% 1% Hematuria ( > 75 RBC/HPF) 3% 2% Glycosuria ( ≥ 3+) < 1% 1% 3 Neutrophils ( < 750/mm³) 3% 5% Fasting Triglycerides ( > 750 mg/dL) 4% 2% a From Weeks 96 to 144 of the trial, subjects received emtricitabine/tenofovir DF administered in combination with efavirenz in place of emtricitabine + tenofovir DF with efavirenz. Laboratory abnormalities observed in Study 073 were generally consistent with those in Study 934. In addition to the laboratory abnormalities described for Study 934 (Table 3), Grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities of increased bilirubin (greater than 2.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)), increased pancreatic amylase (greater than 2.0 x ULN), increased or decreased serum glucose (less than 40 or greater than 250 mg/dL), and increased serum lipase (greater than 2.0 x ULN) occurred in up to 3% of subjects treated with emtricitabine or tenofovir DF with other antiretroviral agents in clinical trials. Hepatic Events In Study 934, 19 subjects treated with efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir DF and 20 subjects treated with efavirenz and fixed-dose zidovudine/lamivudine were hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis C antibody positive. Among these coinfected subjects, one subject (1/19) in the efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF arm had elevations in transaminases to greater than five times ULN through 144 weeks. In the fixed-dose zidovudine/lamivudine arm, two subjects (2/20) had elevations in transaminases to greater than five times ULN through 144 weeks. No HBV and/or HCV coinfected subject discontinued from the trial due to hepatobiliary disorders [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of efavirenz, emtricitabine, or tenofovir DF. Because postmarketing reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Efavirenz Cardiac Disorders Palpitations Ear and Labyrinth Disorders Tinnitus, vertigo Endocrine Disorders Gynecomastia Eye Disorders Abnormal vision Gastrointestinal Disorders Constipation, malabsorption General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Asthenia Hepatobiliary Disorders Hepatic enzyme increase, hepatic failure, hepatitis. A few of the postmarketing reports of hepatic failure, including cases in patients with no pre-existing hepatic disease or other identifiable risk factors, were characterized by a fulminant course, progressing in some cases to transplantation or death. Immune System Disorders Allergic reactions Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Redistribution/accumulation of body fat [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS], hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders Arthralgia, myalgia, myopathy Nervous System Disorders Abnormal coordination, ataxia, cerebellar coordination and balance disturbances, convulsions, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, neuropathy, tremor Psychiatric Disorders Aggressive reactions, agitation, delusions, emotional lability, mania, neurosis, paranoia, psychosis, suicide Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Dyspnea Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Flushing, erythema multiforme, photoallergic dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome Emtricitabine: No postmarketing adverse reactions have been identified for inclusion in this section. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Immune System Disorders Allergic reaction, including angioedema Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Lactic acidosis, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders Dyspnea Gastrointestinal Disorders Pancreatitis, increased amylase, abdominal pain Hepatobiliary Disorders Hepatic steatosis, hepatitis, increased liver enzymes (most commonly AST, ALT, gamma GT) Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Rash Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders Rhabdomyolysis, osteomalacia (manifested as bone pain and which may contribute to fractures), muscular weakness, myopathy Renal and Urinary Disorders Acute renal failure, renal failure, acute tubular necrosis, Fanconi syndrome, proximal renal tubulopathy, interstitial nephritis (including acute cases), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, renal insufficiency, increased creatinine, proteinuria, polyuria General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Asthenia The following adverse reactions, listed under the body system headings above, may occur as a consequence of proximal renal tubulopathy: rhabdomyolysis, osteomalacia, hypokalemia, muscular weakness, myopathy, hypophosphatemia. Read the Atripla (efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with body weight at least 40 kg (at least 88 lbs) The dose of ATRIPLA is one tablet once daily taken orally on an empty stomach. Dosing at bedtime may improve the tolerability of nervous system symptoms. Renal Impairment Because ATRIPLA is a fixed-dose combination, it should not be prescribed for patients requiring dosage adjustment such as those with moderate or severe renal impairment (estimated creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min). Rifampin Coadministration When ATRIPLA is administered with rifampin to patients weighing 50 kg or more, an additional 200 mg/day of efavirenz is recommended [See DRUG INTERACTIONS, Table 4, and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Table 5].

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This section describes clinically relevant drug interactions with ATRIPLA. Drug interaction trials are described elsewhere in the labeling [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Efavirenz Efavirenz has been shown in vivo to induce CYP3A and CYP2B6. Other compounds that are substrates of CYP3A or CYP2B6 may have decreased plasma concentrations when coadministered with efavirenz. Drugs that induce CYP3A activity (e.g., phenobarbital, rifampin, rifabutin) would be expected to increase the clearance of efavirenz, resulting in lowered plasma concentrations [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Emtricitabine And Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Since emtricitabine and tenofovir are primarily eliminated by the kidneys, coadministration of ATRIPLA with drugs that reduce renal function or compete for active tubular secretion may increase serum concentrations of emtricitabine, tenofovir, and/or other renally eliminated drugs. Some examples include, but are not limited to, acyclovir, adefovir dipivoxil, cidofovir, ganciclovir, valacyclovir, valganciclovir, aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin), and high-dose or multiple NSAIDs [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Coadministration of tenofovir DF and didanosine should be undertaken with caution and patients receiving this combination should be monitored closely for didanosineassociated adverse reactions. Didanosine should be discontinued in patients who develop didanosine-associated adverse reactions [for didanosine dosing adjustment recommendations, see Table 4]. Suppression of CD4+ cell counts has been observed in patients receiving tenofovir DF with didanosine 400 mg daily. Darunavir with ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir have been shown to increase tenofovir concentrations. Tenofovir DF is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporters. When tenofovir DF is coadministered with an inhibitor of these transporters, an increase in absorption may be observed. Patients receiving darunavir with ritonavir and ATRIPLA, or lopinavir/ritonavir with ATRIPLA, should be monitored for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. ATRIPLA should be discontinued in patients who develop tenofovir-associated adverse reactions [See Table 4]. Coadministration of atazanavir with ATRIPLA is not recommended since coadministration of atazanavir with either efavirenz or tenofovir DF has been shown to decrease plasma concentrations of atazanavir. Also, atazanavir has been shown to increase tenofovir concentrations. There are insufficient data to support dosing recommendations for atazanavir or atazanavir/ritonavir in combination with ATRIPLA [See Table 4]. Efavirenz, Emtricitabine And Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Other important drug interaction information for ATRIPLA is summarized in Table 1 and Table 4. The drug interactions described are based on trials conducted with efavirenz, emtricitabine or tenofovir DF as individual agents or are potential drug interactions; no drug interaction trials have been conducted using ATRIPLA [for pharmacokinetics data see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Tables 5-8]. The tables include potentially significant interactions, but are not all inclusive. Table 4 : Established and Other Potentially Significanta Drug Interactions: Alterationin Dose or Regimen May Be Recommended Based on Drug Interaction Trials or Predicted Interaction
Concomitant Drug Class: Drug Name Effect Clinical Comment HIV antiviral agents Protease inhibitor: atazanavir ↓atazanavir
↑tenofovir Coadministration of atazanavir with ATRIPLA is not recommended. Coadministration of atazanavir with either efavirenz or tenofovir DF decreases plasma concentrations of atazanavir. The combined effect of efavirenz plus tenofovir DF on atazanavir plasma concentrations is not known. Also, atazanavir has been shown to increase tenofovir concentrations. There are insufficient data to support dosing recommendations for atazanavir or atazanavir/ritonavir in combination with ATRIPLA. Protease inhibitor: fosamprenavir calcium ↓amprenavir Fosamprenavir (unboosted): Appropriate doses of fosamprenavir and ATRIPLA with respect to safety and efficacy have not been established. Fosamprenavir/ritonavir: An additional 100 mg/day (300 mg total) of ritonavir is recommended when ATRIPLA is administered with fosamprenavir/ritonavir once daily. No change in the ritonavir dose is required when ATRIPLA is administered with fosamprenavir plus ritonavir twice daily. Protease inhibitor: indinavir ↓ indinavir The optimal dose of indinavir, when given in combination with efavirenz, is not known. Increasing the indinavir dose to 1000 mg every 8 hours does not compensate for the increased indinavir metabolism due to efavirenz. Protease inhibitor: lopinavir/ritonavir ↓lopinavir
↑tenofovir Do not use once daily administration of lopinavir/ritonavir. Dose increase of lopinavir/ritonavir is recommended for all patients when coadministered with efavirenz. Refer to the full prescribing information for lopinavir/ritonavir for guidance on coadministration with efavirenz- or tenofovir-containing regimens, such as ATRIPLA. Patients should be monitored for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Protease inhibitor: ritonavir ↑ ritonavir
↑efavirenz When ritonavir 500 mg every 12 hours was coadministered with efavirenz 600 mg once daily, the combination was associated with a higher frequency of adverse clinical experiences (e.g., dizziness, nausea, paresthesia) and laboratory abnormalities (elevated liver enzymes). Monitoring of liver enzymes is recommended when ATRIPLA is used in combination with ritonavir. Protease inhibitor: saquinavir ↓saquinavir Appropriate doses of the combination of efavirenz and saquinavir/ritonavir with respect to safety and efficacy have not been established. CCR5 co-receptor antagonist: maraviroc ↓ maraviroc Efavirenz decreases plasma concentrations of maraviroc. Refer to the full prescribing information for maraviroc for guidance on coadministration with ATRIPLA. NRTI: didanosine ↑didanosine Coadministration of ATRIPLA and didanosine should be undertaken with caution and patients receiving this combination should be monitored closely for didanosine-associated adverse reactions including pancreatitis, lactic acidosis, and neuropathy. A dose reduction of didanosine is recommended when coadministered with tenofovir DF. For additional information on coadministration with tenofovir DF-containing products, please refer to the didanosine prescribing information. NNRTI: Other NNRTIs ↑ or↓ efavirenz and/or NNRTI Combining two NNRTIs has not been shown to be beneficial. ATRIPLA contains efavirenz and should not be coadministered with other NNRTIs. Integrase strand transfer inhibitor: raltegravir ↓raltegravir Efavirenz reduces plasma concentrations of raltegravir. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been directly assessed. Hepatitis C antiviral agents Protease inhibitor: boceprevir ↓boceprevir Plasma trough concentrations of boceprevir were decreased when boceprevir was coadministered with efavirenz, which may result in loss of therapeutic effect. The combination should be avoided. Protease inhibitor: telaprevir ↓telaprevir
↓efavirenz Concomitant administration of telaprevir and efavirenz resulted in reduced steady-state exposures to telaprevir and efavirenz. Other agents Anticoagulant: warfarin ↑ or ↓ warfarin Plasma concentrations and effects potentially increased or decreased by efavirenz. Anticonvulsants: carbamazepine ↓carbamazepine
↓efavirenz There are insufficient data to make a dose recommendation for ATRIPLA. Alternative anticonvulsant treatment should be used. phenytoin
phenobarbital ↓anticonvulsant
↓efavirenz Potential for reduction in anticonvulsant and/or efavirenz plasma levels; periodic monitoring of anticonvulsant plasma levels should be conducted. Antidepressants: bupropion
sertraline ↓buproprion
↓sertraline The effect of efavirenz on bupropion exposure is thought to be due to the induction of bupropion metabolism. Increases in bupropion dosage should be guided by clinical response, but the maximum recommended dose of bupropion should not be exceeded. Increases in sertraline dose should be guided by clinical response. Antifungals:
itraconazole
ketoconazole
posaconazole ↓i itraconazole
↓hydroxy-itraconazole
↓ketoconazole
↓posaconazole Since no dose recommendation for itraconazole can be made, alternative antifungal treatment should be considered. Drug interaction trials with ATRIPLA and ketoconazole have not been conducted. Efavirenz has the potential to decrease plasma concentrations of ketoconazole. Avoid concomitant use unless the benefit outweighs the risks. Anti-infective: clarithromycin ↓clarithromycin
↑14-OH metabolite Clinical significance unknown. In uninfected volunteers, 46% developed rash while receiving efavirenz and clarithromycin. No dose adjustment of ATRIPLA is recommended when given with clarithromycin. Alternatives to clarithromycin, such as azithromycin, should be considered. Other macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, have not been studied in combination with ATRIPLA. Antimycobacterial: rifabutin
rifampin ↓ rifabutin
↓efavirenz Increase daily dose of rifabutin by 50%. Consider doubling the rifabutin dose in regimens where rifabutin is given 2 or 3 times a week. If ATRIPLA is coadministered with rifampin to patients weighing 50 kg or more, an additional 200 mg/day of efavirenz is recommended. Antimalarials: Artemether/ lumefantrine ↓artemether
↓ dihydroartemisinin
↓ lumefantrine Artemether/lumefantrine should be used cautiously with ATRIPLA because decreased artemether, dihydroartemisinin (active metabolite of artemether), and/or lumefantrine concentrations may result in a decrease of antimalarial efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine. Calcium channel blockers: diltiazem Others (e.g., felodipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, verapamil) ↓ diltiazem
↓ desacetyl diltiazem
↓N-monodes-methyl diltiazem
↓ calcium channel blocker Diltiazem dose adjustments should be guided by clinical response (refer to the full prescribing information for diltiazem). No dose adjustment of ATRIPLA is necessary when administered with diltiazem. No data are available on the potential interactions of efavirenz with other calcium channel blockers that are substrates of CYP3A. The potential exists for reduction in plasma concentrations of the calcium channel blocker. Dose adjustments should be guided by clinical response (refer to the full prescribing information for the calcium channel blocker). HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors:
atorvastatin
pravastatin
simvastatin ↓atorvastatin
↓pravastatin
↓ simvastatin Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin decreased with efavirenz. Consult the full prescribing information for the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor for guidance on individualizing the dose. Hormonal contraceptives: Oral:
ethinyl estradiol/ norgestimate
Implant: etonogestrel ↓active metabolites of norgestimate
↓etonogestrel A reliable method of barrier contraception must be used in addition to hormonal contraceptives. Efavirenz had no effect on ethinyl estradiol concentrations, but progestin levels (norelgestromin and levonorgestrel) were markedly decreased. No effect of ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate on efavirenz plasma concentrations was observed.
A reliable method of barrier contraception must be used in addition to hormonal contraceptives. The interaction between etonogestrel and efavirenz has not been studied. Decreased exposure of etonogestrel may be expected. There have been postmarketing reports of contraceptive failure with etonogestrel in efavirenz-exposed patients. Immunosuppressants: cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, and others metabolized by CYP3A ↓immunosuppressant Decreased exposure of the immunosuppressant may be expected due to CYP3A induction by efavirenz. These immunosuppressants are not anticipated to affect exposure of efavirenz. Dose adjustments of the immunosuppressant may be required. Close monitoring of immunosuppressant concentrations for at least 2 weeks (until stable concentrations are reached) is recommended when starting or stopping treatment with ATRIPLA. Narcotic analgesic: methadone ↓methadone Coadministration of efavirenz in HIV-1 infected individuals with a history of injection drug use resulted in decreased plasma levels of methadone and signs of opiate withdrawal. Methadone dose was increased by a mean of 22% to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. Patients should be monitored for signs of withdrawal and their methadone dose increased as required to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. a This table is not all inclusive. Efavirenz Assay Interference Cannabinoid Test Interaction: Efavirenz does not bind to cannabinoid receptors. False-positive urine cannabinoid test results have been reported with some screening assays in uninfected and HIV-infected subjects receiving efavirenz. Confirmation of positive screening tests for cannabinoids by a more specific method is recommended. Read the Atripla Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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ATRIPLA® is indicated for use alone as a complete regimen or in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older.

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Hypersensitivity ATRIPLA is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated clinically significant hypersensitivity (e.g., Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, or toxic skin eruptions) to efavirenz, a component of ATRIPLA. Contraindicated Drugs Coadminstration of ATRIPLA with voriconazole is contraindicated. Efavirenz, a component of ATRIPLA, significantly decreases voriconazole plasma concentrations, and coadministration may decrease the therapeutic effectiveness of voriconazole. Also, voriconazole significantly increases efavirenz plasma concentrations, which may increase the risk of efavirenz-associated side effects. Because ATRIPLA is a fixed-dose combination product, the dose of efavirenz cannot be altered [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Tables 5 and 6]. Last reviewed on RxList: 2/13/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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If overdose occurs, the patient should be monitored for evidence of toxicity, including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the patient's clinical status; standard supportive treatment should then be applied as necessary. Administration of activated charcoal may be used to aid removal of unabsorbed efavirenz. Hemodialysis can remove both emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (refer to detailed information below), but is unlikely to significantly remove efavirenz from the blood. Efavirenz: Some patients accidentally taking 600 mg twice daily have reported increased nervous system symptoms. One patient experienced involuntary muscle contractions. Emtricitabine: Limited clinical experience is available at doses higher than the therapeutic dose of emtricitabine. In one clinical pharmacology trial single doses of emtricitabine 1200 mg were administered to 11 subjects. No severe adverse reactions were reported. Hemodialysis treatment removes approximately 30% of the emtricitabine dose over a 3-hour dialysis period starting within 1.5 hours of emtricitabine dosing (blood flow rate of 400 mL/min and a dialysate flow rate of 600 mL/min). It is not known whether emtricitabine can be removed by peritoneal dialysis. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Limited clinical experience at doses higher than the therapeutic dose of tenofovir DF 300 mg is available. In one trial, 600 mg tenofovir DF was administered to 8 subjects orally for 28 days, and no severe adverse reactions were reported. The effects of higher doses are not known. Tenofovir is efficiently removed by hemodialysis with an extraction coefficient of approximately 54%. Following a single 300 mg dose of tenofovir DF, a 4-hour hemodialysis session removed approximately 10% of the administered tenofovir dose.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths ATRIPLA is available as tablets. Each tablet contains 600 mg of efavirenz, 200 mg of emtricitabine and 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF, which is equivalent to 245 mg of tenofovir disoproxil). The tablets are pink, capsule-shaped, film-coated, debossed with “123” on one side and plain-faced on the other side. Storage And Handling ATRIPLA tablets are pink, capsule-shaped, film-coated, debossed with “123” on one side and plain-faced on the other side. Each bottle contains 30 tablets (NDC 155840101-1) and silica gel desiccant, and is closed with a child-resistant closure. Store at 25 °C (77 °F); excursions permitted to 15–30 °C (59–86 °F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
  • Keep container tightly closed.
  • Dispense only in original container.
  • Do not use if seal over bottle opening is broken or missing.
Bristol-Myers Squibb and Gilead Sciences, LLC. Revised: January 2015 Last reviewed on RxList: 2/13/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly With Steatosis Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogs including tenofovir DF, a component of ATRIPLA, in combination with other antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women. Obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering nucleoside analogs to any patient with known risk factors for liver disease; however, cases have also been reported in patients with no known risk factors. Treatment with ATRIPLA should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations). Patients Coinfected With HIV-1 And HBV It is recommended that all patients with HIV-1 be tested for the presence of chronic HBV before initiating antiretroviral therapy. ATRIPLA is not approved for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, and the safety and efficacy of ATRIPLA have not been established in patients coinfected with HBV and HIV-1. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued emtricitabine or tenofovir DF, two of the components of ATRIPLA. In some patients infected with HBV and treated with emtricitabine, the exacerbations of hepatitis B were associated with liver decompensation and liver failure. Patients who are coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment with ATRIPLA. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted. ATRIPLA should not be administered with HEPSERA® (adefovir dipivoxil) [See DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Drug Interactions Efavirenz plasma concentrations may be altered by substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of CYP3A. Likewise, efavirenz may alter plasma concentrations of drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2B6. The most prominent effect of efavirenz at steady-state is induction of CYP3A and CYP2B6. [DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Coadministration With Related Products Related drugs not for coadministration with ATRIPLA include COMPLERA® (emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir DF), EMTRIVA® (emtricitabine), STRIBILD® (elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF), TRUVADA® (emtricitabine/tenofovir DF), and VIREAD® (tenofovir DF), which contain the same active components as ATRIPLA. SUSTIVA® (efavirenz) should not be coadministered with ATRIPLA unless needed for dose-adjustment (e.g., with rifampin) [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Due to similarities between emtricitabine and lamivudine, ATRIPLA should not be coadministered with drugs containing lamivudine, including Combivir (lamivudine/zidovudine), Epivir, or Epivir-HBV (lamivudine), Epzicom (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine), or Trizivir (abacavir sulfate/lamivudine/zidovudine). Psychiatric Symptoms Serious psychiatric adverse experiences have been reported in patients treated with efavirenz. In controlled trials of 1008 subjects treated with regimens containing efavirenz for a mean of 2.1 years and 635 subjects treated with control regimens for a mean of 1.5 years, the frequency (regardless of causality) of specific serious psychiatric events among subjects who received efavirenz or control regimens, respectively, were: severe depression (2.4%, 0.9%), suicidal ideation (0.7%, 0.3%), nonfatal suicide attempts (0.5%, 0%), aggressive behavior (0.4%, 0.5%), paranoid reactions (0.4%, 0.3%), and manic reactions (0.2%, 0.3%). When psychiatric symptoms similar to those noted above were combined and evaluated as a group in a multifactorial analysis of data from Study AI266006 (006), treatment with efavirenz was associated with an increase in the occurrence of these selected psychiatric symptoms. Other factors associated with an increase in the occurrence of these psychiatric symptoms were history of injection drug use, psychiatric history, and receipt of psychiatric medication at trial entry; similar associations were observed in both the efavirenz and control treatment groups. In Study 006, onset of new serious psychiatric symptoms occurred throughout the trial for both efavirenz-treated and control-treated subjects. One percent of efavirenz-treated subjects discontinued or interrupted treatment because of one or more of these selected psychiatric symptoms. There have also been occasional postmarketing reports of death by suicide, delusions, and psychosis-like behavior, although a causal relationship to the use of efavirenz cannot be determined from these reports. Patients with serious psychiatric adverse experiences should seek immediate medical evaluation to assess the possibility that the symptoms may be related to the use of efavirenz, and if so, to determine whether the risks of continued therapy outweigh the benefits [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Nervous System Symptoms Fifty-three percent (531/1008) of subjects receiving efavirenz in controlled trials reported central nervous system symptoms (any grade, regardless of causality) compared to 25% (156/635) of subjects receiving control regimens. These symptoms included dizziness (28.1% of the 1008 subjects), insomnia (16.3%), impaired concentration (8.3%), somnolence (7.0%), abnormal dreams (6.2%), and hallucinations (1.2%). Other reported symptoms were euphoria, confusion, agitation, amnesia, stupor, abnormal thinking, and depersonalization. The majority of these symptoms were mild-tomoderate (50.7%); symptoms were severe in 2.0% of subjects. Overall, 2.1% of subjects discontinued therapy as a result. These symptoms usually begin during the first or second day of therapy and generally resolve after the first 2–4 weeks of therapy. After 4 weeks of therapy, the prevalence of nervous system symptoms of at least moderate severity ranged from 5% to 9% in subjects treated with regimens containing efavirenz and from 3% to 5% in subjects treated with a control regimen. Patients should be informed that these common symptoms were likely to improve with continued therapy and were not predictive of subsequent onset of the less frequent psychiatric symptoms [See Psychiatric Symptoms above]. Dosing at bedtime may improve the tolerability of these nervous system symptoms [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Analysis of long-term data from Study 006 (median follow-up 180 weeks, 102 weeks, and 76 weeks for subjects treated with efavirenz + zidovudine + lamivudine, efavirenz + indinavir, and indinavir + zidovudine + lamivudine, respectively) showed that, beyond 24 weeks of therapy, the incidences of new-onset nervous system symptoms among efavirenz-treated subjects were generally similar to those in the indinavir-containing control arm. Patients receiving ATRIPLA should be alerted to the potential for additive central nervous system effects when ATRIPLA is used concomitantly with alcohol or psychoactive drugs. Patients who experience central nervous system symptoms such as dizziness, impaired concentration, and/or drowsiness should avoid potentially hazardous tasks such as driving or operating machinery. New Onset Or Worsening Renal Impairment Emtricitabine and tenofovir are principally eliminated by the kidney; however, efavirenz is not. Since ATRIPLA is a combination product and the dose of the individual components cannot be altered, patients with estimated creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min should not receive ATRIPLA. Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome (renal tubular injury with severe hypophosphatemia), has been reported with the use of tenofovir DF [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. It is recommended that estimated creatinine clearance be assessed in all patients prior to initiating therapy and as clinically appropriate during therapy with ATRIPLA. In patients at risk of renal dysfunction, including patients who have previously experienced renal events while receiving HEPSERA, it is recommended that estimated creatinine clearance, serum phosphorus, urine glucose, and urine protein be assessed prior to initiation of ATRIPLA, and periodically during ATRIPLA therapy. ATRIPLA should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent (e.g., high-dose or multiple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]) [See DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Cases of acute renal failure after initiation of high dose or multiple NSAIDs have been reported in HIV-infected patients with risk factors for renal dysfunction who appeared stable on tenofovir DF. Some patients required hospitalization and renal replacement therapy. Alternatives to NSAIDs should be considered, if needed, in patients at risk for renal dysfunction. Persistent or worsening bone pain, pain in extremities, fractures and/or muscular pain or weakness may be manifestations of proximal renal tubulopathy and should prompt an evaluation of renal function in at-risk patients. Reproductive Risk Potential Pregnancy Category D Efavirenz may cause fetal harm when administered during the first trimester to a pregnant woman. Pregnancy should be avoided in women receiving ATRIPLA. Barrier contraception must always be used in combination with other methods of contraception (e.g., oral or other hormonal contraceptives). Because of the long half-life of efavirenz, use of adequate contraceptive measures for 12 weeks after discontinuation of ATRIPLA is recommended. Women of childbearing potential should undergo pregnancy testing before initiation of ATRIPLA. If this drug is used during the first trimester of pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential harm to the fetus. There are no adequate and well-controlled trials of ATRIPLA in pregnant women. ATRIPLA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus, such as in pregnant women without other therapeutic options [See Use in Specific Populations]. Rash In controlled clinical trials, 26% (266/1008) of adult subjects treated with 600 mg efavirenz experienced new-onset skin rash compared with 17% (111/635) of those treated in control groups. Rash associated with blistering, moist desquamation, or ulceration occurred in 0.9% (9/1008) of subjects treated with efavirenz. The incidence of Grade 4 rash (e.g., erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome) in adult subjects treated with efavirenz in all trials and expanded access was 0.1%. Rashes are usually mild-to-moderate maculopapular skin eruptions that occur within the first 2 weeks of initiating therapy with efavirenz (median time to onset of rash in adults was 11 days) and, in most subjects continuing therapy with efavirenz, rash resolves within 1 month (median duration, 16 days). The discontinuation rate for rash in adult clinical trials was 1.7% (17/1008). ATRIPLA can be reinitiated in patients interrupting therapy because of rash. ATRIPLA should be discontinued in patients developing severe rash associated with blistering, desquamation, mucosal involvement, or fever. Appropriate antihistamines and/or corticosteroids may improve the tolerability and hasten the resolution of rash. For patients who have had a life-threatening cutaneous reaction (e.g., Stevens-Johnson syndrome), alternative therapy should be considered [See CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Experience with efavirenz in subjects who discontinued other antiretroviral agents of the NNRTI class is limited. Nineteen subjects who discontinued nevirapine because of rash have been treated with efavirenz. Nine of these subjects developed mild-to-moderate rash while receiving therapy with efavirenz, and two of these subjects discontinued because of rash. Rash was reported in 59 of 182 pediatric subjects (32%) treated with efavirenz [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Two pediatric subjects experienced Grade 3 rash (confluent rash with fever, generalized rash), and four subjects had Grade 4 rash (erythema multiforme). The median time to onset of rash in pediatric subjects was 28 days (range 3-1642 days). Prophylaxis with appropriate antihistamines before initiating therapy with ATRIPLA in pediatric patients should be considered. Hepatotoxicity Monitoring of liver enzymes before and during treatment is recommended for patients with underlying hepatic disease, including hepatitis B or C infection; patients with marked transaminase elevations; and patients treated with other medications associated with liver toxicity [See also Patients Coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV]. A few of the postmarketing reports of hepatic failure occurred in patients with no pre-existing hepatic disease or other identifiable risk factors [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Liver enzyme monitoring should also be considered for patients without pre-existing hepatic dysfunction or other risk factors. In patients with persistent elevations of serum transaminases to greater than five times the upper limit of the normal range, the benefit of continued therapy with ATRIPLA needs to be weighed against the unknown risks of significant liver toxicity [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Bone Effects of Tenofovir DF Bone Mineral Density In clinical trials in HIV-1 infected adults, tenofovir DF was associated with slightly greater decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in biochemical markers of bone metabolism, suggesting increased bone turnover relative to comparators. Serum parathyroid hormone levels and 1,25 Vitamin D levels were also higher in subjects receiving tenofovir DF. Clinical trials evaluating tenofovir DF in pediatric and adolescent subjects were conducted. Under normal circumstances, BMD increases rapidly in pediatric patients. In HIV-1 infected subjects aged 2 years to less than 18 years, bone effects were similar to those observed in adult subjects and suggest increased bone turnover. Total body BMD gain was less in the tenofovir DF treated HIV-1 infected pediatric subjects as compared to the control groups. Similar trends were observed in chronic hepatitis B infected adolescent subjects aged 12 years to less than 18 years. In all pediatric trials, skeletal growth (height) appeared to be unaffected. For more information, consult the VIREAD prescribing information. The effects of tenofovir DF-associated changes in BMD and biochemical markers on long-term bone health and future fracture risk are unknown. Assessment of BMD should be considered for adult and pediatric patients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or other risk factors for osteoporosis or bone loss. Although the effect of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D was not studied, such supplementation may be beneficial for all patients. If bone abnormalities are suspected then appropriate consultation should be obtained. Mineralization Defects Cases of osteomalacia associated with proximal renal tubulopathy, manifested as bone pain or pain in extremities and which may contribute to fractures, have been reported in association with the use of tenofovir DF [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Arthralgias and muscle pain or weakness have also been reported in cases of proximal renal tubulopathy. Hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia secondary to proximal renal tubulopathy should be considered in patients at risk of renal dysfunction who present with persistent or worsening bone or muscle symptoms while receiving products containing tenofovir DF [See New Onset or Worsening Renal Impairment]. Convulsions Convulsions have been observed in adult and pediatric patients receiving efavirenz, generally in the presence of known medical history of seizures. Caution must be taken in any patient with a history of seizures. Patients who are receiving concomitant anticonvulsant medications primarily metabolized by the liver, such as phenytoin and phenobarbital, may require periodic monitoring of plasma levels [See DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Immune Reconstitution Syndrome Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including the components of ATRIPLA. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections [such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), or tuberculosis], which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment. Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution, however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment. Fat Redistribution Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established. Patient Counseling Information Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (PATIENT INFORMATION) Drug Interactions A statement to patients and healthcare providers is included on the product's bottle labels: ALERT: Find out about medicines that should NOT be taken with ATRIPLA. ATRIPLA may interact with some drugs; therefore, patients should be advised to report to their doctor the use of any other prescription,nonprescription medication, vitamins and herbal supplements. General Information for Patients Patients should be advised that:
  • ATRIPLA is not a cure for HIV-1 infection and patients may continue to experience illnesses associated with HIV-1 infection, including opportunistic infections. Patients should remain under the care of a physician when using ATRIPLA.
  • Patients should avoid doing things that can spread HIV-1 to others.
    • Do not share needles or other injection equipment.
    • Do not share personal items that can have blood or body fluids on them, like toothbrushes and razor blades.
    • Do not have any kind of sex without protection. Always practice safe sex by using a latex or polyurethane condom to lower the chance of sexual contact with semen, vaginal secretions, or blood.
    • Do not breastfeed. Some of the medicines in ATRIPLA can be passed to your baby in your breast milk. We do not know whether it could harm your baby. Also, mothers with HIV-1 should not breastfeed because HIV-1 can be passed to the baby in the breast milk.
  • The long-term effects of ATRIPLA are unknown.
  • Redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known.
  • ATRIPLA should not be coadministered with COMPLERA, EMTRIVA, STRIBILD, TRUVADA, or VIREAD; or drugs containing lamivudine, including Combivir, Epivir, Epivir-HBV, Epzicom, or Trizivir. SUSTIVA should not be coadministered with ATRIPLA unless needed for dose adjustment [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • ATRIPLA should not be administered with HEPSERA [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly with Steatosis Patients should be informed that lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported. Treatment will be suspended in any patients who develop clinical symptoms suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (including nausea, vomiting, unusual or unexpected stomach discomfort, and weakness) [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Patients Coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV Patients with HIV-1 should be tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) before initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should be advised that severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are coinfected with HBV and HIV-1 and have discontinued EMTRIVA (emtricitabine) or VIREAD (tenofovir DF), which are components of ATRIPLA. New Onset or Worsening Renal Impairment Renal impairment, including cases of acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome, has been reported. ATRIPLA should be avoided with concurrent or recent use of a nephrotoxic agent (e.g., high-dose or multiple NSAIDs) [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Bone Effects of Tenofovir DF Patients should be informed that decreases in bone mineral density have been observed with the use of tenofovir DF. Bone mineral density monitoring may be performed in patients who have a history of pathologic bone fracture or other risk factors for osteoporosis or bone loss [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Dosing Instructions Patients should be advised to take ATRIPLA orally on an empty stomach and that it is important to take ATRIPLA on a regular dosing schedule to avoid missing doses. Nervous System Symptoms Patients should be informed that central nervous system symptoms (NSS) including dizziness, insomnia, impaired concentration, drowsiness, and abnormal dreams are commonly reported during the first weeks of therapy with efavirenz. Dosing at bedtime may improve the tolerability of these symptoms, which are likely to improve with continued therapy. Patients should be alerted to the potential for additive effects when ATRIPLA is used concomitantly with alcohol or psychoactive drugs. Patients should be instructed that if they experience NSS they should avoid potentially hazardous tasks such as driving or operating machinery [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Psychiatric Symptoms Patients should be informed that serious psychiatric symptoms including severe depression, suicide attempts, aggressive behavior, delusions, paranoia, and psychosis-like symptoms have been reported in patients receiving efavirenz. If they experience severe psychiatric adverse experiences they should seek immediate medical evaluation. Patients should be advised to inform their physician of any history of mental illness or substance abuse [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Rash Patients should be informed that a common side effect is rash. Rashes usually go away without any change in treatment. However, since rash may be serious, patients should be advised to contact their physician promptly if rash occurs. Reproductive Risk Potential Women receiving ATRIPLA should be instructed to avoid pregnancy [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. A reliable form of barrier contraception must always be used in combination with other methods of contraception, including oral or other hormonal contraception. Because of the long half-life of efavirenz, use of adequate contraceptive measures for 12 weeks after discontinuation of ATRIPLA is recommended. Women should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or plan to become pregnant while taking ATRIPLA. If this drug is used during the first trimester of pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, she should be apprised of the potential harm to the fetus. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility Efavirenz: Long-term carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats were carried out with efavirenz. Mice were dosed with 0, 25, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/day for 2 years. Incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas and pulmonary alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas were increased above background in females. No increases in tumor incidence above background were seen in males. In studies in which rats were administered efavirenz at doses of 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day for 2 years, no increases in tumor incidence above background were observed. The systemic exposure (based on AUCs) in mice was approximately 1.7-fold that in humans receiving the 600-mg/day dose. The exposure in rats was lower than that in humans. The mechanism of the carcinogenic potential is unknown. However, in genetic toxicology assays, efavirenz showed no evidence of mutagenic or clastogenic activity in a battery of in vitro and in vivo studies. These included bacterial mutation assays in S. typhimurium and E. coli, mammalian mutation assays in Chinese hamster ovary cells, chromosome aberration assays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes or Chinese hamster ovary cells, and an in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Given the lack of genotoxic activity of efavirenz, the relevance to humans of neoplasms in efavirenz-treated mice is not known. Efavirenz did not impair mating or fertility of male or female rats, and did not affect sperm of treated male rats. The reproductive performance of offspring born to female rats given efavirenz was not affected. As a result of the rapid clearance of efavirenz in rats, systemic drug exposures achieved in these studies were equivalent to or below those achieved in humans given therapeutic doses of efavirenz. Emtricitabine: In long-term carcinogenicity studies of emtricitabine, no drug-related increases in tumor incidence were found in mice at doses up to 750 mg/kg/day (26 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg/day) or in rats at doses up to 600 mg/day (31 times the human systemic exposure at the therapeutic dose). Emtricitabine was not genotoxic in the reverse mutation bacterial test (Ames test), mouse lymphoma or mouse micronucleus assays. Emtricitabine did not affect fertility in male rats at approximately 140-fold or in male and female mice at approximately 60-fold higher exposures (AUC) than in humans given the recommended 200 mg daily dose. Fertility was normal in the offspring of mice exposed daily from before birth (in utero) through sexual maturity at daily exposures (AUC) of approximately 60-fold higher than human exposures at the recommended 200 mg daily dose. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: Long-term oral carcinogenicity studies of tenofovir DF in mice and rats were carried out at exposures up to approximately 16 times (mice) and 5 times (rats) those observed in humans at the therapeutic dose for HIV-1 infection. At the high dose in female mice, liver adenomas were increased at exposures 16 times that in humans. In rats, the study was negative for carcinogenic findings at exposures up to 5 times that observed in humans at the therapeutic dose. Tenofovir DF was mutagenic in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and negative in an in vitro bacterial mutagenicity test (Ames test). In an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, tenofovir DF was negative when administered to male mice. There were no effects on fertility, mating performance or early embryonic development when tenofovir DF was administered to male rats at a dose equivalent to 10 times the human dose based on body surface area comparisons for 28 days prior to mating and to female rats for 15 days prior to mating through Day seven of gestation. There was, however, an alteration of the estrous cycle in female rats. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry To monitor fetal outcomes of pregnant women, an Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has been established. Physicians are encouraged to register patients who become pregnant by calling (800) 258-4263. Efavirenz: As of July 2010, the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry has received prospective reports of 792 pregnancies exposed to efavirenz-containing regimens, nearly all of which were first-trimester exposures (718 pregnancies). Birth defects occurred in 17 of 604 live births (first-trimester exposure) and 2 of 69 live births (second/third-trimester exposure). One of these prospectively reported defects with first-trimester exposure was a neural tube defect. A single case of anophthalmia with first-trimester exposure to efavirenz has also been prospectively reported; however, this case included severe oblique facial clefts and amniotic banding, a known association with anophthalmia. There have been six retrospective reports of findings consistent with neural tube defects, including meningomyelocele. All mothers were exposed to efavirenz-containing regimens in the first trimester. Although a causal relationship of these events to the use of efavirenz has not been established, similar defects have been observed in preclinical studies of efavirenz. Animal Data Effects of efavirenz on embryo-fetal development have been studied in three nonclinical species (cynomolgus monkeys, rats, and rabbits). In monkeys, efavirenz 60 mg/kg/day was administered to pregnant females throughout pregnancy (gestation Days 20 through 150). The maternal systemic drug exposures (AUC) were 1.3 times the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose (600 mg/day), with fetal umbilical venous drug concentrations approximately 0.7 times the maternal values. Three fetuses of 20 fetuses/infants had one or more malformations; there were no malformed fetuses or infants from placebo-treated mothers. The malformations that occurred in these three monkey fetuses included anencephaly and unilateral anophthalmia in one fetus, microphthalmia in a second, and cleft palate in the third. There was no NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level) established for this study because only one dosage was evaluated. In rats, efavirenz was administered either during organogenesis (gestation Days 7 to 18) or from gestation Day 7 through lactation Day 21 at 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day. Administration of 200 mg/kg/day in rats was associated with an increase in the incidence of early resorptions, and doses 100 mg/kg/day and greater were associated with early neonatal mortality. The AUC at the NOAEL (50 mg/kg/day) in this rat study was 0.1 times that in humans at the recommended clinical dose. Drug concentrations in the milk on lactation Day 10 were approximately 8 times higher than those in maternal plasma. In pregnant rabbits, efavirenz was neither embryo lethal nor teratogenic when administered at doses of 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg/day over the period of organogenesis (gestation Days 6 through 18). The AUC at the NOAEL (75 mg/kg/day) in rabbits was 0.4 times that in humans at the recommended clinical dose. Nursing Mothers The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1 infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1. Studies in humans have shown that efavirenz, tenofovir and emtricitabine are excreted in human milk. Because the risks of low level exposure to efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir to infants are unknown, and because of the potential for HIV1 transmission, mothers should be instructed not to breastfeed if they are receiving ATRIPLA. Emtricitabine Samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1 infected mothers show that emtricitabine is secreted in human milk. Breastfeeding infants whose mothers are being treated with emtricitabine may be at risk for developing viral resistance to emtricitabine. Other emtricitabine-associated risks in infants breastfed by mothers being treated with emtricitabine are unknown. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Samples of breast milk obtained from five HIV-1 infected mothers show that tenofovir is secreted in human milk. Tenofovir-associated risks, including the risk of viral resistance to tenofovir, in infants breastfed by mothers being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate are unknown. Pediatric Use ATRIPLA should only be administered to pediatric patients 12 years of age and older with a body weight greater than or equal to 40 kg (greater than or equal to 88 lbs). Because ATRIPLA is a fixed-dose combination tablet, the dose adjustments recommended for pediatric patients younger than 12 years of age for each individual component cannot be made with ATRIPLA [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Geriatric Use Clinical trials of efavirenz, emtricitabine, or tenofovir DF did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for elderly patients should be cautious, keeping in mind the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Hepatic Impairment ATRIPLA is not recommended for patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment because there are insufficient data to determine an appropriate dose. Patients with mild hepatic impairment may be treated with ATRIPLA at the approved dose. Because of the extensive cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of efavirenz and limited clinical experience in patients with hepatic impairment, caution should be exercised in administering ATRIPLA to these patients [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Renal Impairment Because ATRIPLA is a fixed-dose combination, it should not be prescribed for patients requiring dosage adjustment such as those with moderate or severe renal impairment (estimated creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min) [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Last reviewed on RxList: 2/13/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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