Drug: Byetta

BYETTA (exenatide) is a synthetic peptide that was originally identified in the lizard Heloderma suspectum. Exenatide differs in chemical structure and pharmacological action from insulin, sulfonylureas (including D-phenylalanine derivatives and meglitinides), biguanides, thiazolidinediones, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, amylinomimetics and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Exenatide is a 39-amino acid peptide amide. Exenatide has the empirical formula C184H282N50O60S and molecular weight of 4186.6 Daltons. The amino acid sequence for exenatide is shown below. H-His-Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Ala-Val-Arg-Leu -Phe-Ile-Glu-Trp-Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pro-Pro-Pro-Ser-NH2 BYETTA (exenatide injection) is supplied for SC injection as a sterile, preserved isotonic solution in a glass cartridge that has been assembled in a pen-injector (pen). Each milliliter (mL) contains 250 micrograms (mcg) synthetic exenatide, 2.2 mg metacresol as an antimicrobial preservative, mannitol as a tonicity-adjusting agent, and glacial acetic acid and sodium acetate trihydrate in water for injection as a buffering solution at pH 4.5. Two prefilled pens are available to deliver unit doses of 5 mcg or 10 mcg. Each prefilled pen will deliver 60 doses to provide for 30 days of twice daily administration (BID).

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Clinical Trial Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Hypoglycemia Table 1 summarizes the incidence and rate of hypoglycemia with BYETTA (exenatide injection) in five placebo-controlled clinical trials. Table 1: Incidence (%) and Rate of Hypoglycemia When BYETTA (exenatide injection) was Used as Monotherapy or With Concomitant Antidiabetic Therapy in Five Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials*
  BYETTA Placebo twice daily 5 mcg twice daily 10 mcg twice daily Monotherapy (24 Weeks) N 77 77 78 % Overall 1.3% 5.2% 3.8% Rate (episodes/patient­year) 0.03 0.21 0.52 % Severe 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% With Metformin (30 Weeks) N 113 110 113 % Overall 5.3% 4.5% 5.3% Rate(episodes/patient­year) 0.12 0.13 0.12 % Severe 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% With a Sulfonylurea (30 Weeks) N 123 125 129 % Overall 3.3% 14.4% 35.7% Rate (episodes/patient­year) 0.07 0.64 1.61 % Severe 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% With Metformin and a Sulfonylurea (30 Weeks) N 247 245 241 % Overall 12.6% 19.2% 27.8% Rate(episodes/patient­year) 0.58 0.78 1.71 % Severe 0.0% 0.4% 0.0% With a Thiazolidinedione (16 Weeks) N 112 Dose not studied 121 % Overall 7.1% Dose not studied 10.7% Rate(episodes/patient-years) 0.56 Dose not studied 0.98 % Severe 0.0% Dose not studied 0.0% * For the 30-week trials, a hypoglycemia episode was recorded if the patient reported symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia and was recorded as severe if the subject required the assistance of another person to treat the event. For the other trials, a hypoglycemic episode was recorded if a patient reported signs or symptoms of hypoglycemia or had a blood glucose value consistent with hypoglycemia regardless of associated symptoms or treatment and was recorded as severe if the subject required the assistance of another person to treat the event. The requirement for assistance had to be accompanied by a blood glucose measurement of < 50 mg/dL or prompt recovery after administration of oral carbohydrate.
N = The number of Intent-to-Treat subjects in each treatment group. Immunogenicity In the 30-week controlled trials of BYETTA (exenatide injection) add-on to metformin and/or sulfonylurea, 38% of patients had low titer antibodies to exenatide at 30 weeks. For this group, the level of glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]) was generally comparable to that observed in those without antibody titers. An additional 6% of patients had higher titer antibodies at 30 weeks. In about half of this 6% (3% of the total patients given BYETTA (exenatide injection) in the 30-week controlled studies), the glycemic response to BYETTA (exenatide injection) was attenuated; the remainder had a glycemic response comparable to that of patients without antibodies. In the 16-week trial of BYETTA (exenatide injection) add-on to thiazolidinediones, with or without metformin, 9% of patients had higher titer antibodies at 16 weeks. In the 24-week trial of BYETTA (exenatide injection) used as monotherapy, 3% of patients had higher titer antibodies at 24 weeks. Compared with patients who did not develop antibodies to BYETTA (exenatide injection) , on average the glycemic response in patients with higher titer antibodies was attenuated [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Other Adverse Reactions Monotherapy For the 24-week placebo-controlled study of BYETTA (exenatide injection) used as a monotherapy, Table 2 summarizes adverse reactions (excluding hypoglycemia) occurring with an incidence ≥ 2% and occurring more frequently in BYETTA (exenatide injection) -treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients. Table 2: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions ≥ 2% Incidence With BYETTA (exenatide injection) Used as Monotherapy (Excluding Hypoglycemia)*
Monotherapy Placebo BID
N = 77
% All BYETTA (exenatide injection) BID
N = 155
% Nausea 0 8 Vomiting 0 4 Dyspepsia 0 3 * In a 24-week placebo-controlled trial.
BID = twice daily. Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 1.0 to < 2.0% of patients receiving BYETTA (exenatide injection) and reported more frequently than with placebo included decreased appetite, diarrhea, and dizziness. The most frequently reported adverse reaction associated with BYETTA (exenatide injection) , nausea, occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. Two of the 155 patients treated with BYETTA (exenatide injection) withdrew due to adverse reactions of headache and nausea. No placebo-treated patients withdrew due to adverse reactions. Combination Therapy Add-on to metformin and/or sulfonylurea In the three 30-week controlled trials of BYETTA (exenatide injection) add-on to metformin and/or sulfonylurea, adverse reactions (excluding hypoglycemia) with an incidence ≥ 2% and occurring more frequently in BYETTA (exenatide injection) -treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] are summarized in Table 3. Table 3: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions ≥ 2% Incidence and Greater Incidence With BYETTA (exenatide injection) Treatment Used With Metformin and/or a Sulfonylurea (Excluding Hypoglycemia)*
  Placebo BID
N = 483
% All BYETTA (exenatide injection) BID
N = 963
% Nausea 18 44 Vomiting 4 13 Diarrhea 6 13 Feeling Jittery 4 9 Dizziness 6 9 Headache 6 9 Dyspepsia 3 6 Asthenia 2 4 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 1 3 Hyperhidrosis 1 3 * In three 30-week placebo-controlled clinical trials.
BID = twice daily. Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 1.0 to < 2.0% of patients receiving BYETTA (exenatide injection) and reported more frequently than with placebo included decreased appetite. Nausea was the most frequently reported adverse reaction and occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. With continued therapy, the frequency and severity decreased over time in most of the patients who initially experienced nausea. Patients in the long-term uncontrolled open-label extension studies at 52 weeks reported no new types of adverse reactions than those observed in the 30-week controlled trials. The most common adverse reactions leading to withdrawal for BYETTA (exenatide injection) -treated patients were nausea (3% of patients) and vomiting (1%). For placebo-treated patients, < 1% withdrew due to nausea and none due to vomiting. Add-on to thiazolidinedione with or without metformin For the 16-week placebo-controlled study of BYETTA (exenatide injection) add-on to a thiazolidinedione, with or without metformin, Table 4 summarizes the adverse reactions (excluding hypoglycemia) with an incidence of ≥ 2% and occurring more frequently in BYETTA (exenatide injection) -treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients. Table 4: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions ≥ 2% Incidence With BYETTA (exenatide injection) Used With a Thiazolidinedione, With or Without Metformin (Excluding Hypoglycemia)*
With a TZD or TZD/MET Placebo
N = 112
% All BYETTA (exenatide injection) BID
N = 121
% Nausea 15 40 Vomiting 1 13 Dyspepsia 1 7 Diarrhea 3 6 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 0 3 * In a 16-week placebo-controlled clinical trial.
BID = twice daily. Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 1.0 to < 2.0% of patients receiving BYETTA (exenatide injection) and reported more frequently than with placebo included decreased appetite. Chills (n = 4) and injection-site reactions (n = 2) occurred only in BYETTA (exenatide injection) -treated patients. The two patients who reported an injection-site reaction had high titers of antibodies to exenatide. Two serious adverse events (chest pain and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis) were reported in the BYETTA (exenatide injection) arm. No serious adverse events were reported in the placebo arm. The most common adverse reactions leading to withdrawal for BYETTA (exenatide injection) -treated patients were nausea (9%) and vomiting (5%). For placebo-treated patients, < 1% withdrew due to nausea. Post-Marketing Experience The following additional adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use of BYETTA (exenatide injection) . Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Allergy/Hypersensitivity: injection-site reactions, generalized pruritus and/or urticaria, macular or papular rash, angioedema, anaphylactic reaction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Drug Interactions: International normalized ratio (INR) increased with concomitant warfarin use sometimes associated with bleeding [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Gastrointestinal: nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea resulting in dehydration; abdominal distension, abdominal pain, eructation, constipation, flatulence, acute pancreatitis, hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis sometimes resulting in death [see Limitations of Use and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Neurologic: dysgeusia; somnolence Renal and Urinary Disorders: altered renal function, including increased serum creatinine, renal impairment, worsened chronic renal failure or acute renal failure (sometimes requiring hemodialysis), kidney transplant and kidney transplant dysfunction [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: alopecia Read the Byetta (exenatide injection) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Recommended Dosing BYETTA (exenatide injection) should be initiated at 5 mcg administered twice daily at any time within the 60-minute period before the morning and evening meals (or before the two main meals of the day, approximately 6 hours or more apart). BYETTA (exenatide injection) should not be administered after a meal. Based on clinical response, the dose of BYETTA (exenatide injection) can be increased to 10 mcg twice daily after 1 month of therapy. Initiation with 5 mcg reduces the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal side effects. Each dose should be administered as a subcutaneous (SC) injection in the thigh, abdomen, or upper arm. No data are available on the safety or efficacy of intravenous or intramuscular injection of BYETTA (exenatide injection) . Use BYETTA (exenatide injection) only if it is clear, colorless and contains no particles.

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Orally Administered Drugs The effect of BYETTA (exenatide injection) to slow gastric emptying can reduce the extent and rate of absorption of orally administered drugs. BYETTA (exenatide injection) should be used with caution in patients receiving oral medications that have narrow therapeutic index or require rapid gastrointestinal absorption [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. For oral medications that are dependent on threshold concentrations for efficacy, such as contraceptives and antibiotics, patients should be advised to take those drugs at least 1 hour before BYETTA (exenatide injection) injection. If such drugs are to be administered with food, patients should be advised to take them with a meal or snack when BYETTA is not administered [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Warfarin There are postmarketing reports of increased INR sometimes associated with bleeding, with concomitant use of warfarin and BYETTA [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In a drug interaction study, BYETTA (exenatide injection) did not have a significant effect on INR [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. In patients taking warfarin, prothrombin time should be monitored more frequently after initiation or alteration of BYETTA (exenatide injection) therapy. Once a stable prothrombin time has been documented, prothrombin times can be monitored at the intervals usually recommended for patients on warfarin.Read the Byetta Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus BYETTA (exenatide injection) is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Important Limitations of Use BYETTA (exenatide injection) is not a substitute for insulin. BYETTA (exenatide injection) should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, as it would not be effective in these settings. The concurrent use of BYETTA (exenatide injection) with insulin has not been studied and cannot be recommended. Based on postmarketing data BYETTA (exenatide injection) has been associated with acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis. BYETTA (exenatide injection) has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for pancreatitis while using BYETTA (exenatide injection) . Other antidiabetic therapies should be considered in patients with a history of pancreatitis.

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Hypersensitivity BYETTA (exenatide injection) is contraindicated in patients with prior severe hypersensitivity reactions to exenatide or to any of the product components. Last reviewed on RxList: 6/20/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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In a clinical study of BYETTA (exenatide injection) , three patients with type 2 diabetes each experienced a single overdose of 100 mcg SC (10 times the maximum recommended dose). Effects of the overdoses included severe nausea, severe vomiting, and rapidly declining blood glucose concentrations. One of the three patients experienced severe hypoglycemia requiring parenteral glucose administration. The three patients recovered without complication. In the event of overdose, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated according to the patient's clinical signs and symptoms.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths BYETTA (exenatide injection) is supplied as a sterile solution for subcutaneous injection containing 250 mcg/mL exenatide in the following packages:
  • 5 mcg per dose, 60 doses, 1.2 mL prefilled pen
  • 10 mcg per dose, 60 doses, 2.4 mL prefilled pen
BYETTA (exenatide injection) is supplied as a sterile solution for subcutaneous injection containing 250 mcg/mL exenatide. The following packages are available: 5 mcg per dose, 60 doses, 1.2 mL prefilled pen, NDC 66780-210-07 10 mcg per dose, 60 doses, 2.4 mL prefilled pen, NDC 66780-212-01 Storage and Handling Prior to first use, BYETTA (exenatide injection) must be stored refrigerated at 36°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C). After first use, BYETTA (exenatide injection) can be kept at a temperature not to exceed 77°F (25°C). Do not freeze. Do not use BYETTA (exenatide injection) if it has been frozen. BYETTA (exenatide injection) should be protected from light. The pen should be discarded 30 days after first use, even if some drug remains in the pen. BYETTA (exenatide injection) should not be used past the expiration date. BYETTA (exenatide injection) pens are not to be shared with other patients. Manufactured for Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121. Marketed by Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Eli Lilly and Company. 1-800-868-1190. http://www.BYETTA (exenatide injection) .com. Literature Revised September 2010. Last reviewed on RxList: 6/20/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Acute Pancreatitis Based on postmarketing data BYETTA (exenatide injection) has been associated with acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis. After initiation of BYETTA (exenatide injection) , and after dose increases, observe patients carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis (including persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting). If pancreatitis is suspected, BYETTA (exenatide injection) should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated. If pancreatitis is confirmed, BYETTA (exenatide injection) should not be restarted. Consider antidiabetic therapies other than BYETTA (exenatide injection) in patients with a history of pancreatitis. Hypoglycemia The risk of hypoglycemia is increased when BYETTA (exenatide injection) is used in combination with a sulfonylurea (hypoglycemia can also occur when other antidiabetic agents are used in combination with a sulfonylurea). Therefore, patients receiving BYETTA (exenatide injection) and a sulfonylurea may require a lower dose of the sulfonylurea to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. It is also possible that the use of BYETTA (exenatide injection) with other glucose-independent insulin secretagogues (e.g. meglitinides) could increase the risk of hypoglycemia. For additional information on glucose dependent effects see Mechanism of Action. Renal Impairment BYETTA (exenatide injection) should not be used in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) or end-stage renal disease and should be used with caution in patients with renal transplantation [see Use In Specific Populations]. In patients with end-stage renal disease receiving dialysis, single doses of BYETTA (exenatide injection) 5 mcg were not well-tolerated due to gastrointestinal side effects. Because BYETTA (exenatide injection) may induce nausea and vomiting with transient hypovolemia, treatment may worsen renal function. Caution should be applied when initiating or escalating doses of BYETTA (exenatide injection) from 5 mcg to 10 mcg in patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 to 50 mL/min). There have been postmarketing reports of altered renal function, including increased serum creatinine, renal impairment, worsened chronic renal failure and acute renal failure, sometimes requiring hemodialysis or kidney transplantation. Some of these events occurred in patients receiving one or more pharmacologic agents known to affect renal function or hydration status, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or diuretics. Some events occurred in patients who had been experiencing nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea, with or without dehydration. Reversibility of altered renal function has been observed in many cases with supportive treatment and discontinuation of potentially causative agents, including BYETTA. Exenatide has not been found to be directly nephrotoxic in preclinical or clinical studies. Gastrointestinal Disease BYETTA (exenatide injection) has not been studied in patients with severe gastrointestinal disease, including gastroparesis. Because BYETTA (exenatide injection) is commonly associated with gastrointestinal adverse reactions, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, the use of BYETTA (exenatide injection) is not recommended in patients with severe gastrointestinal disease. Immunogenicity Patients may develop antibodies to exenatide following treatment with BYETTA (exenatide injection) , consistent with the potentially immunogenic properties of protein and peptide pharmaceuticals. In a small proportion of patients, the formation of antibodies to exenatide at high titers could result in failure to achieve adequate improvement in glycemic control. If there is worsening glycemic control or failure to achieve targeted glycemic control, alternative antidiabetic therapy should be considered [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Hypersensitivity There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis and angioedema) in patients treated with BYETTA (exenatide injection) . If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, the patient should discontinue BYETTA (exenatide injection) and other suspect medications and promptly seek medical advice [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Macrovascular Outcomes There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with BYETTA (exenatide injection) or any other antidiabetic drug. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility A 104-week carcinogenicity study was conducted in male and female rats at doses of 18, 70, or 250 mcg/kg/day administered by bolus SC injection. Benign thyroid C-cell adenomas were observed in female rats at all exenatide doses. The incidences in female rats were 8% and 5% in the two control groups and 14%, 11%, and 23% in the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups with systemic exposures of 5, 22, and 130 times, respectively, the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on plasma area under the curve (AUC). In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in mice at doses of 18, 70, or 250 mcg/kg/day administered by bolus SC injection, no evidence of tumors was observed at doses up to 250 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure up to 95 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC. Exenatide was not mutagenic or clastogenic, with or without metabolic activation, in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay or chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Exenatide was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. In mouse fertility studies with SC doses of 6, 68 or 760 mcg/kg/day, males were treated for 4 weeks prior to and throughout mating, and females were treated 2 weeks prior to mating and throughout mating until gestation day 7. No adverse effect on fertility was observed at 760 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure 390 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology In female mice given SC doses of 6, 68, or 760 mcg/kg/day beginning 2 weeks prior to and throughout mating until gestation day 7, there were no adverse fetal effects at doses up to 760 mcg/kg/day, systemic exposures up to 390 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC. In pregnant mice given SC doses of 6, 68, 460, or 760 mcg/kg/day from gestation day 6 through 15 (organogenesis), cleft palate (some with holes) and irregular fetal skeletal ossification of rib and skull bones were observed at 6 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure 3 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC. In pregnant rabbits given SC doses of 0.2, 2, 22, 156, or 260 mcg/kg/day from gestation day 6 through 18 (organogenesis), irregular fetal skeletal ossifications were observed at 2 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure 12 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC. In pregnant mice given SC doses of 6, 68, or 760 mcg/kg/day from gestation day 6 through lactation day 20 (weaning), an increased number of neonatal deaths was observed on postpartum days 2-4 in dams given 6 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure 3 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of BYETTA use in pregnant women. In animal studies, exenatide caused cleft palate, irregular skeletal ossification and an increased number of neonatal deaths. BYETTA (exenatide injection) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Female mice given SC doses of 6, 68, or 760 mcg/kg/day beginning 2 weeks prior to and throughout mating until gestation day 7 had no adverse fetal effects. At the maximal dose, 760 mcg/kg/day, systemic exposures were up to 390 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. In developmental toxicity studies, pregnant animals received exenatide subcutaneously during organogenesis. Specifically, fetuses from pregnant rabbits given SC doses of 0.2, 2, 22, 156, or 260 mcg/kg/day from gestation day 6 through 18 experienced irregular skeletal ossifications from exposures 12 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC. Moreover, fetuses from pregnant mice given SC doses of 6, 68, 460, or 760 mcg/kg/day from gestation day 6 through 15 demonstrated reduced fetal and neonatal growth, cleft palate and skeletal effects at systemic exposure 3 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. Lactating mice given SC doses of 6, 68, or 760 mcg/kg/day from gestation day 6 through lactation day 20 (weaning), experienced an increased number of neonatal deaths. Deaths were observed on postpartum days 2-4 in dams given 6 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure 3 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 20 mcg/day, based on AUC [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. Pregnancy Registry Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. maintains a Pregnancy Registry to monitor pregnancy outcomes of women exposed to exenatide during pregnancy. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling 1-800-633-9081. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether exenatide is excreted in human milk. However, exenatide is present at low concentrations (less than or equal to 2.5% of the concentration in maternal plasma following subcutaneous dosing) in the milk of lactating mice. Many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for clinically significant adverse reactions in nursing infants from exenatide, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account these potential risks against the glycemic benefits to the lactating woman. Caution should be exercised when BYETTA (exenatide injection) is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of BYETTA (exenatide injection) have not been established in pediatric patients. Geriatric Use Population pharmacokinetic analysis of patients ranging from 22 to 73 years of age suggests that age does not influence the pharmacokinetic properties of exenatide [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. BYETTA (exenatide injection) was studied in 282 patients 65 years of age or older and in 16 patients 75 years of age or older. No differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection in the elderly based on renal function. Renal Impairment BYETTA (exenatide injection) is not recommended for use in patients with end-stage renal disease or severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) and should be used with caution in patients with renal transplantation. No dosage adjustment of BYETTA (exenatide injection) is required in patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance 50 to 80 mL/min). Caution should be applied when initiating or escalating doses of BYETTA (exenatide injection) from 5 mcg to 10 mcg in patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance 30 to 50 mL/min) [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Hepatic Impairment No pharmacokinetic study has been performed in patients with a diagnosis of acute or chronic hepatic impairment. Because exenatide is cleared primarily by the kidney, hepatic dysfunction is not expected to affect blood concentrations of exenatide [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Last reviewed on RxList: 6/20/2012
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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