Drug: Corlopam

CORLOPAM (Fenoldopam Mesylate Injection, USP) is a dopamine D1-like receptor agonist. The product is formulated as a solution to be diluted for intravenous infusion. Chemically it is 6-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-[1H]-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol methanesulfonate with the following structure: Fenoldopam mesylate is a white to off-white powder with a molecular weight of 401.87 and a molecular formula of C16H16ClNO3·CH3SO3H. It is sparingly soluble in water, ethanol and methanol, and is soluble in propylene glycol. Ampules: Each 1 mL contains, in sterile aqueous solution, citric acid 3.44 mg; fenoldopam mesylate equivalent to fenoldopam 10 mg; propylene glycol 518 mg; sodium citrate dihydrate 0.61 mg; sodium metabisulfite 1 mg.Last reviewed on RxList: 10/24/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Adult Patients: Fenoldopam causes a dose-related fall in blood pressure and increase in heart rate (see PRECAUTIONS, Tachycardia, and Hypotension). In controlled clinical studies of severe hypertension in patients with end-organ damage, 3% (4/137) of patients withdrew because of excessive falls in blood pressure. Increased heart rate could, in theory, lead to ischemic cardiac events or worsened heart failure, although these events have not been observed. The most common events reported as associated with fenoldopam use are headache, cutaneous dilation (flushing), nausea, and hypotension, each reported in more than 5% of patients. Adverse reactions in controlled trials in hypertensive adult patients Adverse events occurring more than once in any dosing group (once if potentially important or plausibly drug-related) in the fixed-dose constant-infusion studies are presented in the following Table by infusion-rate group. There was no clear dose relationship, except possibly for headache, nausea, flushing. Table 4: ADVERSE EVENTS* FROM FIXED-DOSE INFUSION STUDIES BY DOSAGE GROUP
Body System Fenoldopam Dosage (mcg/kg/min) (Adults) Event Placebo
(n=7) 0.01
(n=26) 0.03-0.04
(n=31) 0.1
(n=28) 0.3-0.4
(n= 29) 0.6-0.8
(n=11) Body, General Headache 1 5 4 7 8 6 Injection site reaction 0 1 3 0 3 2 Cardiovascular ST-T abnormalities (primarily T-wave inversion) 0 2 4 0 1 0 Flushing 0 0 0 0 1 3 Hypotension** 0 0 0 2 0 2 Postural hypotension 0 2 0 0 0 0 Tachycardia** 0 0 0 0 0 2 Digestive Nausea 0 3 0 3 5 4 Vomiting 0 2 0 2 1 2 Abdominal pain/fullness 0 2 0 0 2 1 Constipation 0 0 0 0 0 2 Diarrhea 0 0 0 0 2 0 Metabolic and Nutritional Increased creatinine** 0 0 2 0 0 0 Hypokalemia** 0 2 2 0 1 0 Nervous Nervousness/anxiety 0 0 1 0 0 2 Insomnia 0 2 0 0 0 0 Dizziness 0 1 1 2 2 0 Respiratory Nasal congestion 0 0 0 0 0 2 Skin and Appendages Sweating 0 0 0 1 1 2 Urogenital Urinary tract infection 0 2 0 1 0 0 Musculoskeletal Back pain 0 1 0 1 2 2 *Includes events reported by 2 or more patients receiving fenoldopam treatment across all dose groups.
**Investigator defined; no protocol definition. Adverse effects in overall database The adverse event incidences listed below are based on observations of over 1,000 fenoldopam treated adult patients and not listed in Table 4 above. Events reported with a frequency between 0.5-5% in patients treated with IV fenoldopam Cardiovascular: extrasystoles, palpitations, bradycardia, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris Metabolic: elevated BUN, elevated serum glucose, elevated transaminase, elevated LDH General Body: non-specific chest pain, pyrexia Hematologic/Lymphatic: leukocytosis, bleeding Respiratory: Dyspnea, upper respiratory disorder Genitourinary: Oliguria Musculoskeletal: limb cramp Pediatric Patients: In pediatric patients, the most common adverse events reported during short term administration in controlled trials (30 minutes) were hypotension and tachycardia. However, because of the short exposure, there is limited experience with defining adverse events in children. The long-term effects of fenoldopam on growth and development have not been studied. Read the Corlopam (fenoldopam mesylate) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Adult Patients: The optimal magnitude and rate of blood pressure reduction in acutely hypertensive patients have not been rigorously determined, but, in general, both delay and too rapid decreases appear undesirable in sick adult patients. An initial fenoldopam dose may be chosen from Tables 2 and 3 in the Clinical Pharmacology Section that produces the desired magnitude and rate of blood pressure reduction in a given clinical situation. Doses below 0.1 mcg/kg/min have very modest effects and appear only marginally useful in this population. In general, as the initial dose increases, there is a greater and more rapid blood pressure reduction. However, lower initial doses (0.03 to 0.1 mcg/kg/min) titrated slowly have been associated with less reflex tachycardia than have higher initial doses ( ≥ 0.3 mcg/kg/min). In clinical trials, doses from 0.01-1.6 mcg/kg/min have been studied. Most of the effect of a given infusion rate is attained in 15 minutes. Fenoldopam should be administered by continuous intravenous infusion. A bolus dose should not be used.Hypotension and rapid decreases of blood pressure should be avoided. The initial dose should be titrated upward or downward, no more frequently than every 15 minutes (and less frequently as goal pressure is approached) to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. The recommended increments for titration are 0.05 to 0.1 mcg/kg/min. Use of a calibrated, mechanical infusion pump is recommended for proper control of infusion rate during fenoldopam infusion. In clinical trials, fenoldopam treatment was safely performed without the need for intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring; blood pressure and heart rate were monitored at frequent intervals, typically every 15 minutes. Frequent blood pressure monitoring is recommended. Fenoldopam infusion can be abruptly discontinued or gradually tapered prior to discontinuation. Oral antihypertensive agents can be added during fenoldopam infusion or following its discontinuation. Patients in controlled clinical trials have received intravenous fenoldopam for as long as 48 hours. PREPARATION OF INFUSION SOLUTION WARNING: CONTENTS OF AMPULES MUST BE DILUTED BEFORE INFUSION. EACH AMPULE IS FOR SINGLE USE ONLY. Dilution Adult Patients: The fenoldopam injection ampule concentrate must be diluted in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP, using the following dilution schedule: mL of Concentrate (mg of drug) Added to Final Concentration 4 mL (40 mg) 1000 mL 40 mcg/mL 2 mL (20 mg) 500 mL 40 mcg/mL 1 mL (10 mg) 250 mL 40 mcg/mL The drug dose rate must be individualized according to body weight and according to the desired rapidity and extent of pharmacodynamic effect. Table 5 provides the calculated infusion volume in mL/hour for a range of drug doses and body weights. The infusion should be administered using a calibrated mechanical infusion pump that can accurately and reliably deliver the desired infusion rate. Infusion Rates Table 5
FENOLDOPAM ADULT INFUSION RATES (mL/hour)
DRUG DOSAGE FOR ADULTS > 40 KG, USING 40 MCG/ML CONCENTRATION
NOTE: CONCENTRATION IS DIFFERENT FROM PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, TABLE 6.
Body Weight (kg) Infusion Rate 0.025
mcg/kg/min 0.05
mcg/kg/min 0.1
mcg/kg/min 0.2
mcg/kg/min 0.3
mcg/kg/min   Infusion Rates (mL/hour) of 40 mcg/mL solution 40 1.5 3 6 12 18 50 1.9 3.8 7.5 15 22.5 60 2.3 4.5 9.0 18 27 70 2.6 5.3 10.5 21 31.5 80 3 6 12 24 36 90 3.4 6.8 13.5 27 40.5 100 3.8 7.5 15 30 45 110 4.1 8.3 16.5 33 49.5 120 4.5 9 18 36 54 130 4.9 9.8 19.5 39 58.5 140 5.3 10.5 21 42 63 150 5.6 11.3 22.5 45 67.5 Table 5 (continued)
FENOLDOPAM ADULT INFUSION RATES (mL/hour)
DRUG DOSAGE FOR ADULTS > 40 KG, USING 40 MCG/ML CONCENTRATION
NOTE: CONCENTRATION IS DIFFERENT FROM PEDIATRIC PATIENTS, TABLE 6. Body Weight (kg) Infusion Rate 0.5
mcg/kg/min 0.8
mcg/kg/min 1
mcg/kg/min 1.2
mcg/kg/min 1.4
mcg/kg/min 1.6
mcg/kg/min Infusion Rates (mL/hour) of 40 mcg/mL solution 40 30 48 60 72 84 96 50 37.5 60 75 90 105 120 60 45 72 90 108 126 144 70 52.5 84 105 126 147 168 80 60 96 120 144 168 192 90 67.5 108 135 162 189 216 100 75 120 150 180 210 240 110 82.5 132 165 198 231 264 120 90 144 180 216 252 288 130 97.5 156 195 234 273 312 140 105 168 210 252 294 336 150 112.5 180 225 270 315 360 The diluted solution is stable under normal ambient light and temperature conditions for at least 24 hours. Diluted solution that is not used within 24 hours of preparation should be discarded. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. If particulate matter or cloudiness is observed, the drug should be discarded. Pediatric Patients: Fenoldopam should be administered intravenously to pediatric patients by a continuous infusion pump appropriate for the delivery of low infusion rates. Monitoring of blood pressure should be continuous, usually by way of an intra-arterial line. Heart rate should also be continuously monitored. In the clinical trial, the usual starting dose was 0.2 mcg/kg/min with an effect on MAP evident within 5 minutes. At a constant infusion rate the effect was maximal after 20 to 25 minutes. Increased dosages of up to 0.3 to 0.5 mcg/kg/min every 20 to 30 minutes were generally well tolerated. Tachycardia without further decrease in MAP occurred at dosages greater than 0.8 mcg/kg/min. Upon discontinuation of the fenoldopam infusion after an average of 4 hours of therapy, blood pressure and heart rate returned to near baseline within 30 minutes. PREPARATION OF INFUSION SOLUTION WARNING: CONTENTS OF AMPULES MUST BE DILUTED BEFORE INFUSION. EACH AMPULE IS FOR SINGLE USE ONLY. Dilution Pediatric Patients mL of Concentrate (mg of drug) Added to Final Concentration 3 mL (30 mg) 500 mL 60 mcg/mL 1.5 mL (15 mg) 250 mL 60 mcg/mL 0.6 mL (6 mg) 100 mL 60 mcg/mL Table 6 provides the calculated infusion volume in mL/hour for a range of drug doses and body weights. The infusion should be administered using a calibrated mechanical infusion pump that can accurately and reliably deliver the desired infusion rate. As low flow rates (e.g., < 0.5 mL/hr) may not be practical, and due to volume overload, it may be necessary to increase the concentration of fenoldopam in the infused solutions. Infusion Rates Table 6: FENOLDOPAM PEDIATRIC INFUSION RATES (mL/hour)
DRUG DOSAGE FOR CHILDREN BETWEEN 5 AND 70 KG, USING 60 MCG/ML CONCENTRATION
NOTE: CONCENTRATION IS DIFFERENT FROM ADULT PATIENTS, TABLE 5.
Body Weight (kg) Infusion Rate 0.2
mcg/kg/min 0.5
mcg/kg/min 0.8
mcg/kg/min 1
mcg/kg/min 1.2
mcg/kg/min   Infusion Rates (mL/hr) of 60 mcg/mL solution 5 1 2.5 4 5 6 10 2 5 8 10 12 20 4 10 16 20 24 30 6 15 24 30 36 40 8 20 32 40 48 50 10 25 40 50 60 60 12 30 48 60 72 70 14 35 56 70 84 The diluted solution is stable under normal ambient light and temperature conditions for at least 24 hours. Diluted solution that is not used within 24 hours of preparation should be discarded. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. If particulate matter or cloudiness is observed, the drug should be discarded.

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General: Although there have been no formal interaction studies, intravenous fenoldopam has been administered safely with drugs such as digitalis and sublingual nitroglycerin. There is limited experience with concomitant antihypertensive agents such as alpha-blockers, calcium channel-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and diuretics (both thiazide-like and loop). Last reviewed on RxList: 10/24/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Adult Patients: Fenoldopam is indicated for the in-hospital, short-term (up to 48 hours) management of severe hypertension when rapid, but quickly reversible, emergency reduction of blood pressure is clinically indicated, including malignant hypertension with deteriorating end-organ function. Transition to oral therapy with another agent can begin at any time after blood pressure is stable during fenoldopam infusion. Pediatric Patients: Fenoldopam is indicated for the in-hospital, short-term (up to 4 hours) reduction in blood pressure (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY/Pediatric Patients).

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None known. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/24/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Intentional fenoldopam overdosage has not been reported. The most likely reaction would be excessive hypotension which should be treated with drug discontinuation and appropriate supportive measures.

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List Container Concentration Fill Quantity 2304 Single-dose ampule 10 mg/mL 1 mL one per carton 2304 Single-dose ampule 10 mg/mL 2 mL one per carton Store at 2 to 30°C (35.6 to 86°F). ABBOTT LABORATORIES, NORTH CHICAGO, IL 60064, USA. FDA Rev date: 4/1/2004 Last reviewed on RxList: 10/24/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Intraocular Pressure In a clinical study of 12 patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (mean baseline intraocular pressure was 29.2 mm Hg with a range of 22 to 33 mm Hg), infusion of fenoldopam at escalating doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 mcg/kg/min over a 3.5 hour period caused a dose-dependent increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). At the peak effect, the intraocular pressure was raised by a mean of 6.5 mm Hg (range -2 to +8.5 mm Hg, corrected for placebo effect). Upon discontinuation of the fenoldopam infusion, the IOP returned to baseline values within 2 hours. Fenoldopam administration to patients with glaucoma or intraocular hypertension should be undertaken with caution. Tachycardia Fenoldopam causes a dose-related tachycardia (Table 2 and Table 3), particularly with infusion rates above 0.1 mcg/kg/min. Tachycardia in adults diminishes over time but remains substantial at higher doses. Tachycardia in pediatric patients at doses ≥ 0.8 mcg/kg/min persists at least for 4 hours. Hypotension Fenoldopam may occasionally produce symptomatic hypotension and close monitoring of blood pressure during administration is essential. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.) It is particularly important to avoid systemic hypotension when administering the drug to patients who have sustained an acute cerebral infarction or hemorrhage. In pediatric patients, fenoldopam was only administered to patients with an indwelling intraarterial line. Hypokalemia Decreases in serum potassium occasionally to values below 3 mEq/L were observed after less than 6 hours of fenoldopam infusion. It is not clear if the hypokalemia reflects a pressure natriuresis with enhanced potassium-sodium exchange or a direct drug effect. During clinical trials, electrolytes were monitored at intervals of 6 hours. Hypokalemia was treated with either oral or intravenous potassium supplementation. Patient management should include appropriate attention to serum electrolytes. Intracranial Pressure The effect of fenoldopam in the presence of increased intracranial pressure has not been studied. Drug Interactions with Beta-Blockers: Concomitant use of fenoldopam with beta-blockers should be avoided. If the drugs are used together, caution should be exercised because unexpected hypotension could result from beta-blocker inhibition of the sympathetic reflex response to fenoldopam. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility In a 24-month study, mice treated orally with fenoldopam at 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day, reduced to 25 mg/kg/day on day 209 of study, showed no increase above controls in the incidence of neoplasms. Female mice in the highest dose group had an increased incidence and degree of severity of a fibro-osseous lesion of the sternum compared with control or low-dose animals. Compared to controls, female mice in the middle- and upper-dose groups had a higher incidence and degree of severity of chronic nephritis. These pathologic lesions were not seen in male mice treated with fenoldopam. In a 24-month study, rats treated orally with fenoldopam at 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg/day, with the mid- and high-dose groups increased to 15 or 25 mg/kg/day, respectively, on day 372 of the study, showed no increase above controls in the incidence or type of neoplasms. Compared with the controls, rats in the mid- and high-dose groups had a higher incidence of hyperplasia of collecting duct epithelium at the tip of the renal papilla. Fenoldopam did not induce bacterial gene mutation in the Ames test or mammalian gene mutation in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay. In the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay with CHO cells, fenoldopam was associated with statistically significant and dose-dependent increases in chromosomal aberrations, and in the proportion of aberrant metaphases. However, no chromosomal damage was seen in the in vivo mice micronucleus or bone marrow assays. Oral fertility and general reproduction performance studies in male and female rats at 12.5, 37.5 or 75 mg/kg/day revealed no impairment of fertility or reproduction performance due to fenoldopam. Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B. Oral reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses of 12.5 to 200 mg/kg/day and 6.25 to 25 mg/kg/day, respectively. Studies have revealed maternal toxicity at the highest doses tested but no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to fenoldopam. However, there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Since animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, fenoldopam should be used in pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers Fenoldopam is excreted in milk in rats. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when fenoldopam is administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Anti-hypertensive effects of fenoldopam have been studied in pediatric patients age < 1 month (at least 2 kg or full term) to 12 years old requiring blood pressure reduction (see Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Studies, Pediatric Patients). Clinical studies of fenoldopam did not include subjects ages 12 to 16 years of age to determine if they respond differently from younger subjects or adults. The pharmacokinetics of fenoldopam are independent of age when corrected for body weight. Dose selection for patients 12 to 16 years of age should consider the patient's clinical condition and concomitant drug therapy. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of fenoldopam did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/24/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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