Drug: Adasuve

ADASUVE, a typical antipsychotic, is an inhalation powder of loxapine supplied in a single-use, disposable inhaler containing 10 mg of loxapine base. ADASUVE is a drug-device combination product. Active Ingredient: Loxapine (base). Loxapine, a dibenzoxazepine compound, represents a subclass of tricyclic antipsychotic agents, chemically distinct from the thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, and phenothiazines. Chemically, it is 2-Chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) dibenz [b,f] [1,4] oxazepine. ADASUVE is a single-use, drug-device combination product that provides rapid systemic delivery by inhalation of a thermally-generated aerosol of loxapine. Oral inhalation through the product initiates the controlled rapid heating of a thin film of excipient-free loxapine to form a thermally-generated drug vapor. The vapor condenses into aerosol particles that are dispersed into the airstream created by the patient inhaling through the mouthpiece. Each product is packaged inside a sealed foil pouch. The product is a white to off-white plastic unit, with a mouthpiece on one end and a pull-tab protruding from the other end. Removal of a pull-tab from the product renders it ready for use, as indicated by illumination of a green light. After inhalation through the mouthpiece, successful dosing is signaled by the green light turning off. Under standardized in vitro test conditions, ADASUVE, 10 mg delivers 9.1 mg of loxapine out of the mouthpiece. Last reviewed on RxList: 1/14/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
  • Hypersensitivity (serious skin reactions) [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]
  • Bronchospasm [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Hypotension and syncope [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Seizure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Cerebrovascular Reactions, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Anticholinergic Reactions Including Exacerbation of Glaucoma and Urinary Retention [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. The following findings are based on pooled data from three short-term (24-hour), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials (Studies 1, 2, and 3) of ADASUVE 10 mg in the treatment of patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. In the 3 trials, 259 patients received ADASUVE 10 mg, and 263 received placebo [see Clinical Studies]. Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions In the 3 trials in acute agitation, the most common adverse reactions were dysgeusia, sedation, and throat irritation. These reactions occurred at a rate of at least 2% of the ADASUVE group and at a rate greater than in the placebo group. (Refer to Table 1). Table 1: Adverse Reactions in 3 Pooled Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials (Studies 1, 2, and 3) in Patients with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder
Adverse Reaction Placebo
(n = 263) ADASUVE
(n = 259) Dysgeusia 5% 14% Sedation 10% 12% Throat Irritation 0% 3% Airway Adverse Reactions in the 3 Trials in Acute Agitation Agitated patients with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder: In the 3 short-term (24-hour), placebo-controlled trials in patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (Studies 1, 2, and 3), bronchospasm (which includes reports of wheezing, shortness of breath and cough) occurred more frequently in the ADASUVE group, compared to the placebo group: 0% (0/263) in the placebo group and 0.8% (2/259) in the ADASUVE 10 mg group. One patient with schizophrenia, without a history of pulmonary disease, had significant bronchospasm requiring rescue treatment with a bronchodilator and oxygen. Bronchospasm and Airway Adverse Reactions in Pulmonary Safety Trials Clinical pulmonary safety trials demonstrated that ADASUVE can cause bronchospasm as measured by FEV1, and as indicated by respiratory signs and symptoms in the trials. In addition, the trials demonstrated that patients with asthma or other pulmonary diseases, such as COPD are at increased risk of bronchospasm. The effect of ADASUVE on pulmonary function was evaluated in 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical pulmonary safety trials in healthy volunteers, patients with asthma, and patients with COPD. Pulmonary function was assessed by serial FEV1 tests, and respiratory signs and symptoms were assessed. In the asthma and COPD trials, patients with respiratory symptoms or FEV1 decrease of ≥ 20% were administered rescue treatment with albuterol (metered dose inhaler or nebulizer) as required. These patients were not eligible for a second dose; however, they had continued FEV1 monitoring in the trial. Healthy Volunteers: In the healthy volunteer crossover trial, 30 subjects received 2 doses of either ADASUVE or placebo 8 hours apart, and 2 doses of the alternate treatment at least 4 days later. The results for maximum decrease in FEV1 are presented in Table 2. No subjects in this trial developed airway related adverse reactions (cough, wheezing, chest tightness, or dyspnea). Asthma Patients: In the asthma trial, 52 patients with mild-moderate persistent asthma (with FEV1 ≥ 60% of predicted) were randomized to treatment with 2 doses of ADASUVE 10 mg or placebo. The second dose was to be administered 10 hours after the first dose. Approximately 67% of these patients had a baseline FEV1 ≥ 80% of predicted. The remaining patients had an FEV1 60-80% of predicted. Nine patients (17%) were former smokers. As shown in Table 2 and Figure 7, there was a marked decrease in FEV1 immediately following the first dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 303 mL and 9.1%, respectively). Furthermore, the effect on FEV1 was greater following the second dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 537 mL and 14.7 %, respectively). Respiratory-related adverse reactions (bronchospasm, chest discomfort, cough, dyspnea, throat tightness, and wheezing) occurred in 54% of ADASUVE-treated patients and 12% of placebo-treated patients. There were no serious adverse events. Nine of 26 (35%) patients in the ADASUVE group, compared to one of 26 (4%) in the placebo group, did not receive a second dose of study medication, because they had a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 or they developed respiratory symptoms after the first dose. Rescue medication (albuterol via metered dose inhaler or nebulizer) was administered to 54% of patients in the ADASUVE group [7 patients (27%) after the first dose and 7 of the remaining 17 patients (41%) after the second dose] and 12% in the placebo group (1 patient after the first dose and 2 patients after the second dose). COPD Patients: In the COPD trial, 53 patients with mild to severe COPD (with FEV1 ≥ 40% of predicted) were randomized to treatment with 2 doses of ADASUVE 10 mg or placebo. The second dose was to be administered 10 hours after the first dose. Approximately 57% of these patients had moderate COPD [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Stage II]; 32% had severe disease (GOLD Stage III); and 11% had mild disease (GOLD Stage I). As illustrated in Table 2 there was a decrease in FEV1 soon after the first dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 96 mL and 3.5%, respectively), and the effect on FEV1 was greater following the second dose (maximum mean decreases in FEV1 and % predicted FEV1 were 125 mL and 4.5%, respectively). Respiratory adverse reactions occurred more frequently in the ADASUVE group (19%) than in the placebo group (11%). There were no serious adverse events. Seven of 25 (28%) patients in the ADASUVE group and 1of 27 (4%) in the placebo group did not receive a second dose of study medication because of a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 or the development of respiratory symptoms after the first dose. Rescue medication (albuterol via MDI or nebulizer) was administered to 23% of patients in the ADASUVE group: 8% of patients after the first dose and 21% of patients after the second dose, and to 15% of patients in the placebo group. Table 2: Maximum Decrease in FEV1 from Baseline in the Healthy Volunteer, Asthma, and COPD Trials
  Maximum % FEV↓ Healthy Volunteer Asthma COPD Placebo ADASUVE 10 mg Placebo ADASUVE 10 mg Placebo ADASUVE 10 mg n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) After any Dose N=26 N=26 N=26 N=26 N=27 N=25 ≥ 10 7 (27) 7 (27) 3 (12) 22 (85) 18 (67) 20 (80) ≥ 15 1 (4) 5 (19) 1 (4) 16 (62) 9 (33) 14 (56) ≥ 20 0 1 (4) 1 (4) 11 (42) 3 (11) 10 (40) After Dose 1 N=26 N=26 N=26 N=26 N=27 N=25 ≥ 10 4 (15) 5 (19) 2 (8) 16 (62) 8 (30) 16 (64) ≥ 15 1 (4) 2 (8) 1 (4) 8 (31) 4 (15) 10 (40) ≥ 20 0 0 1 (4) 6 (23) 2 (7) 9 (36) After Dose 2 N=26 N=25 N=25 N=17 N=26 N=19 ≥ 10 5 (19) 6 (24) 3 (12) 12 (71) 15 (58) 12 (63) ≥ 15 0 5 (20) 1 (4) 9 (53) 6 (23) 10 (53) ≥ 20 0 1 (4) 1 (4) 5 (30) 1 (4) 5 (26) FEV1 categories are cumulative; i.e. a subject with a maximum decrease of 21% is included in all 3 categories. Patients with a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 did not receive a second dose of study drug. Figure 7: LS Mean Change from Baseline in FEV1 in Patients with Asthma
Patients with a ≥ 20% decrease in FEV1 did not receive a second dose of study drug and are not included in the curves beyond hour 10. Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS): Extrapyramidal reactions have occurred during the administration of oral loxapine. In most patients, these reactions involved parkinsonian symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, and masked facies. Akathisia (motor restlessness) has also occurred. In the 3 short-term (24-hour), placebo-controlled trials of ADASUVE in 259 patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, extrapyramidal reactions occurred. One patient (0.4%) treated with ADASUVE developed neck dystonia and oculogyration. The incidence of akathisia was 0% and 0.4% in the placebo and ADASUVE groups, respectively. Dystonia (Antipsychotic Class Effect): Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during treatment with ADASUVE. Dystonic symptoms include spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, difficulty swallowing or breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. Acute dystonia tends to be dose-related, but can occur at low doses, and occurs more frequently with first generation antipsychotic drugs such as ADASUVE. The risk is greater in males and younger age groups. Cardiovascular Reactions: Tachycardia, hypotension, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, lightheadedness, and syncope have been reported with oral administration of loxapine. Read the Adasuve (loxapine inhalation powder) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Dosing Information ADASUVE must be administered only by a healthcare professional. ADASUVE is administered by oral inhalation only. The recommended dose for acute agitation is 10 mg administered by oral inhalation, using a single-use inhaler. Administer only a single dose within a 24-hour period [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Required Examination Prior to Dosing Prior to administering ADASUVE, screen all patients for a history of asthma, COPD, or other pulmonary disease, and examine patients (including chest auscultation) for respiratory signs (e.g. wheezing) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Important Administration Instructions Read all of these instructions prior to administering ADASUVE. Step 1. Open the Pouch When ready to use, tear open the foil pouch and remove the inhaler from the package (see Figure 1). Figure 1: Tearing the pouch
When the ADASUVE inhaler is removed from the pouch, the indicator light is off (see Figure 2). Figure 2: ADASUVE Inhaler with Indicator Light
Step 2. Pull Tab Firmly pull the plastic tab from the rear of the inhaler (see Figure 3). Check that the green light turns on. This indicates that the inhaler is ready for use. Use the inhaler within 15 minutes after removing the tab to prevent automatic deactivation of the inhaler. The green light will turn off, indicating that the inhaler is not usable. Discard the inhaler after one use. Figure 3
Step 3. Explain Procedures to the Patient Explain the administration procedures to the patient prior to use, and advise the patient that it is important to follow the instructions. Inform the patient that the inhaler may produce a flash of light and a clicking sound, and it may become warm during use. These are normal. Step 4. Instruct the Patient to Exhale Instruct the patient to hold the inhaler away from the mouth and breathe out fully to empty the lungs (see Figure 4). Figure 4: Exhale
Step 5. Instruct the Patient to Inhale Instruct the patient to put the mouthpiece of the inhaler between the lips, close the lips, and inhale through the mouthpiece with a steady deep breath (see Figure 5). Check that the green light turns off indicating that the dose has been delivered. Figure 5: Inhale
Step 6. Instruct the Patient to Hold Breath Instruct the patient to remove the mouthpiece from the mouth and hold the breath for as long as possible, up to 10 seconds (see Figure 6). Figure 6: Hold Breath
Important: If the green light remains on after the patient inhales, the dose of ADASUVE has NOT been delivered. Instruct the patient to repeat Step 4, Step 5, and Step 6 up to 2 additional times. If the green light still does not turn off, discard the inhaler and use a new one. Monitoring to Assess Safety Monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of bronchospasm after ADASUVE administration. Perform a physical examination, including chest auscultation, at least every 15 minutes for at least one hour after ADASUVE administration [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

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CNS Depressants ADASUVE is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. The concurrent use of ADASUVE with other CNS depressants (e.g., alcohol, opioid analgesics, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, sedative/hypnotics, muscle relaxants, and/or illicit CNS depressants) can increase the risk of respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, and syncope. Therefore, consider reducing the dose of CNS depressants if used concomitantly with ADASUVE. Anticholinergic Drugs ADASUVE has anticholinergic activity. The concomitant use of ADASUVE and other anticholinergic drugs can increase the risk of anticholinergic adverse reactions including exacerbation of glaucoma and urinary retention. Last reviewed on RxList: 1/14/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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ADASUVE is a typical antipsychotic indicated for the acute treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder in adults. “Psychomotor agitation” is defined in DSM-IV as “excessive motor activity associated with a feeling of inner tension.” Patients experiencing agitation often manifest behaviors that interfere with their care (e.g., threatening behaviors, escalating or urgently distressing behavior, self-exhausting behavior), leading clinicians to the use of rapidly absorbed antipsychotic medications to achieve immediate control of the agitation [see Clinical Studies]. The efficacy of ADASUVE was established in one study of acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia and one study of acute agitation in patients with bipolar I disorder [see Clinical Studies]. Limitations of Use As part of the ADASUVE REMS Program to mitigate the risk of bronchospasm, ADASUVE must be administered only in an enrolled healthcare facility [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

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ADASUVE is contraindicated in patients with the following:
  • Current diagnosis or history of asthma, COPD, or other lung disease associated with bronchospasm [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Acute respiratory symptoms or signs (e.g., wheezing) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Current use of medications to treat airways disease, such as asthma or COPD [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • History of bronchospasm following ADASUVE treatment [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Known hypersensitivity to loxapine or amoxapine. Serious skin reactions have occurred with oral loxapine and amoxapine.
Last reviewed on RxList: 1/14/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Signs and Symptoms of Overdosage As would be expected from the pharmacologic actions of loxapine, the clinical findings may include CNS depression, unconsciousness, profound hypotension, respiratory depression, extrapyramidal symptoms, and seizure. Management of Overdosage For the most up to date information on the management of ADASUVE overdosage, contact a certified poison control center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org). Provide supportive care including close medical supervision and monitoring. Treatment should consist of general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any drug. Consider the possibility of multiple drug overdosage. Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. Use supportive and symptomatic measures.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths ADASUVE is an inhalation powder supplied in a single-use, disposable inhaler containing 10 mg of loxapine base. ADASUVE™ (loxapine) inhalation powder is supplied as: ADASUVE 10 mg (NDC 51097-001-01) is a single-use, disposable inhaler containing 10 mg of loxapine, provided in a sealed foil pouch. ADASUVE, 10 mg is supplied in a carton of 5 units per carton. Restricted Access ADASUVE is only available through a restricted program called the ADASUVE REMS Program [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Storage and Handling Store ADASUVE at room temperature, 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep out of reach of children. Keep ADASUVE in pouch until time of use. ADASUVE contains a lithium battery. Dispose of ADASUVE in accordance with all federal, state and local laws. Manufactured by:Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Mountain View, CA 94043. Issued: 12/2012 Last reviewed on RxList: 1/14/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Bronchospasm ADASUVE can cause bronchospasm that has the potential to lead to respiratory distress and respiratory arrest [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Administer ADASUVE only in an enrolled healthcare facility that has immediate access on-site to equipment and personnel trained to manage acute bronchospasm, including advanced airway management (intubation and mechanical ventilation) [see BOXED WARNING]. Prior to administering ADASUVE, screen patients regarding a current diagnosis or history of asthma, COPD, and other lung disease associated with bronchospasm, acute respiratory symptoms or signs, current use of medications to treat airways disease, such as asthma or COPD; and examine patients (including chest auscultation) for respiratory abnormalities (e.g., wheezing) [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Monitor patients for symptoms and signs of bronchospasm (i.e., vital signs and chest auscultation) at least every 15 minutes for a minimum of one hour following treatment with ADASUVE [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. ADASUVE can cause sedation, which can mask the symptoms of bronchospasm. Because clinical trials in patients with asthma or COPD demonstrated that the degree of bronchospasm, as indicated by changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), was greater following a second dose of ADASUVE, limit ADASUVE use to a single dose within a 24 hour period. Advise all patients of the risk of bronchospasm. Advise them to inform the healthcare professional if they develop any breathing problems such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, or cough following treatment with ADASUVE. ADASUVE REMS to Mitigate Bronchospasm Because of the risk of bronchospasm, ADASUVE is available only through a restricted program under a REMS called the ADASUVE REMS. [see BOXED WARNING] Required components of the ADASUVE REMS are:
  • Healthcare facilities that dispense and administer ADASUVE must be enrolled and comply with the REMS requirements. Certified healthcare facilities must have on-site access to equipment and personnel trained to provide advance airway management, including intubation and mechanical ventilation.
  • Wholesalers and distributors that distribute ADASUVE must enroll in the program and distribute only to enrolled healthcare facilities.
Further information is available at www.adasuverems.com or 888-970-7367. Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at increased risk of death. Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the cases of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies can be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. ADASUVE is not approved for the treatment of elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis [see BOXED WARNING]. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Antipsychotic drugs can cause a potentially fatal symptom complex termed Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). Clinical manifestations of NMS include hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Associated features can include elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentration, rhabdomyolysis, elevated serum and urine myoglobin concentration, and renal failure. NMS did not occur in the ADASUVE clinical program. The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. It is important to consider the presence of other serious medical conditions (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, heat stroke, primary CNS pathology, central anticholinergic toxicity, extrapyramidal symptoms, or drug fever). The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs that may contribute to the underlying disorder, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS. If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported. Hypotension and Syncope ADASUVE can cause hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope. Use ADASUVE with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease, heart failure or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions that would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, or treatment with antihypertensive medications or other drugs that affect blood pressure or reduce heart rate). In the presence of severe hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy, the preferred drugs may be norepinephrine or phenylephrine. Epinephrine should not be used, because beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of ADASUVE-induced partial alpha blockade. In short-term (24-hour) placebo-controlled trials of patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder, hypotension occurred in 0.4% and 0.8% in the ADASUVE 10 mg and placebo groups, respectively. There were no cases of orthostatic hypotension, postural symptoms, presyncope or syncope. A systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 20 mm Hg occurred in 1.5% and 0.8% of the ADASUVE 10 mg and placebo groups, respectively. A diastolic blood pressure ≤ 50 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 15 mm Hg occurred in 0.8% and 0.4% of the ADASUVE 10 mg and placebo groups, respectively. In 5 Phase 1 studies in normal volunteers, the incidence of hypotension was 3% and 0% in ADASUVE 10 mg and the placebo groups, respectively. The incidence of syncope or presyncope in normal volunteers was 2.3% and 0% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. In normal volunteers, a systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 20 mm Hg occurred in 5.3% and 1.1% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. A diastolic blood pressure ≤ 50 mm Hg with a decrease of ≥ 15 mm Hg occurred in 7.5% and 3.3% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. Seizures ADASUVE lowers the seizure threshold. Seizures have occurred in patients treated with oral loxapine. Seizures can occur in epileptic patients even during antiepileptic drug maintenance therapy. In short term (24 hour), placebo-controlled trials of ADASUVE, there were no reports of seizures. Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment ADASUVE can impair judgment, thinking, and motor skills. In short-term, placebo-controlled trials, sedation and/or somnolence were reported in 12% and 10% in the ADASUVE and placebo groups, respectively. No patients discontinued treatment because of sedation or somnolence. The potential for cognitive and motor impairment is increased when ADASUVE is administered concurrently with other CNS depressants [see DRUG INTERACTIONS]. Caution patients about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with ADASUVE does not affect them adversely. Cerebrovascular Reactions, Including Stroke, in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis In placebo-controlled trials with atypical antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse reactions (stroke and transient ischemic attacks), including fatalities, compared to placebo-treated patients. ADASUVE is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see BOXED WARNING]. Anticholinergic Reactions Including Exacerbation of Glaucoma and Urinary Retention ADASUVE has anticholinergic activity, and it has the potential to cause anticholinergic adverse reactions including exacerbation of glaucoma or urinary retention. The concomitant use of other anticholinergic drugs (e.g., antiparkinson drugs) with ADASUVE could have additive effects. Patient Counseling Information See FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) Bronchospasm Advise patients and caregivers that there is a risk of bronchospasm. Advise patients to inform their healthcare professional if they develop any breathing problems such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, or cough following treatment with ADASUVE [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance Caution patients and caregivers about performing activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating hazardous machinery or operating a motor vehicle, until they are reasonably certain that ADASUVE has not affected them adversely [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Caution patients and caregivers about the potential for sedation, especially when used concurrently with other CNS depressants (e.g., alcohol, opioid analgesics, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, sedative/hypnotics, muscle relaxants, and/or illicit CNS depressants). Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Patients and caregivers should be counseled that a potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as NMS has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs. Signs and symptoms of NMS include hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Hypotension and Syncope Advise patients and caregivers of the risk of hypotension or orthostatic hypotension (symptoms include feeling dizzy or lightheaded upon standing) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Anticholinergic Reactions Counsel patients and caregivers about the potential risks of anticholinergic reactions, such as exacerbation of glaucoma and urinary retention [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Pregnancy Counsel patients and caregivers regarding the potential risk to the fetus or neonate [see Use in Specific Populations]. Nursing Mothers Counsel patients and caregivers regarding the potential risk to the infant [see Use in Specific Populations]. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis No adequate studies have been conducted. Mutagenesis Loxapine did not cause mutation or chromosomal aberration when tested in vitro and in vivo. Loxapine was negative in the Ames gene mutation assay, the human peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay, and in the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay up to 40 mg/kg (20-fold the MRHD on mg/m² basis). Loxapine metabolite 8-OH-loxapine was not mutagenic in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay and was not clastogenic in the in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay. Impairment of Fertility Loxapine had no effects on fertility or early embryonic development in male rats or in male and female rabbits following oral administration. Mating was decreased in female rats because these animals were in persistent diestrus, an expected pharmacologic effect for this class of compounds. This occurred at doses approximately 0.2- and 1-fold the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m² basis. Use In Specific Populations In general, no dose adjustment for ADASUVE is required on the basis of a patient's age, gender, race, smoking status, hepatic function, or renal function. Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C Risk Summary There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ADASUVE use in pregnant women. Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. Loxapine, the active ingredient in ADASUVE, has demonstrated increased embryofetal toxicity and death in rat fetuses and offspring exposed to doses approximately 0.5-fold the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m² basis. ADASUVE should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Human Data Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress, and feeding disorders in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, but in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. Animal Data In rats, embryofetal toxicity (increased fetal resorptions, reduced weights, and hydronephrosis with hydroureter) was observed following oral administration of loxapine during the period of organogenesis at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day. This dose is equivalent to the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m² basis. In addition, fetal toxicity (increased prenatal death, decreased postnatal survival, reduced fetal weights, delayed ossification, and/or distended renal pelvis with reduced or absent papillae) was observed following oral administration of loxapine from mid-pregnancy through weaning at doses of 0.6 mg/kg and higher. This dose is approximately half the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m² basis. No teratogenicity was observed following oral administration of loxapine during the period of organogenesis in the rat, rabbit, or dog at doses up to 12, 60, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. These doses are approximately 12-, 120-, and 32-fold the MRHD of 10 mg/day on a mg/m² basis, respectively. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether ADASUVE is present in human milk. Loxapine and its metabolites are present in the milk of lactating dogs. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ADASUVE, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue ADASUVE, taking in to account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of ADASUVE in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death [see BOXED WARNING and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. ADASUVE is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis. Placebo-controlled studies of ADASUVE in patients with agitation associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder did not include patients over 65 years of age. Last reviewed on RxList: 1/14/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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