Drug: Bicillin CR

Bicillin C-R (penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine injectable suspension) contains equal amounts of the benzathine and procaine salts of penicillin G. It is available for deep intramuscular injection. Penicillin G benzathine is prepared by the reaction of dibenzylethylene diamine with two molecules of penicillin G. It is chemically designated as (2S,5R,6R)-3,3-Dimethyl-7-oxo-6-(2-phenylacetamido)-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid compound with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine (2:1), tetrahydrate. It occurs as a white, crystalline powder and is very slightly soluble in water and sparingly soluble in alcohol. Its chemical structure is as follows: Penicillin G procaine, (2S,5R,6R)-3,3-Dimethyl-7-oxo-6-(2-phenylacetamido)-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid compound with 2-(diethylamino)ethyl p-aminobenzoate (1:1) monohydrate, is an equimolar salt of procaine and penicillin G. It occurs as white crystals or a white, microcrystalline powder and is slightly soluble in water. Its chemical structure is as follows: Each disposable syringe (2 mL size) contains the equivalent of 1,200,000 units of penicillin G comprising: the equivalent of 600,000 units of penicillin G as the benzathine salt and the equivalent of 600,000 units of penicillin G as the procaine salt in a stabilized aqueous suspension with sodium citrate buffer; and as w/v, approximately 0.5% lecithin, 0.55% carboxymethylcellulose, 0.55% povidone, 0.1% methylparaben, and 0.01% propylparaben. Bicillin C-R injectable suspension in the disposable-syringe formulation is viscous and opaque. Read CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections prior to use.

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As with other penicillins, untoward reactions of the sensitivity phenomena are likely to occur, particularly in individuals who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins or in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever, or urticaria. The following have been reported with parenteral penicillin G: General: Hypersensitivity reactions including the following: skin eruptions (maculopapular to exfoliative dermatitis), urticaria, laryngeal edema, fever, eosinophilia; other serum sickness-like reactions (including chills, fever, edema, arthralgia, and prostration); and anaphylaxis including shock and death. Note: Urticaria, other skin rashes, and serum sickness-like reactions may be controlled with antihistamines and, if necessary, systemic corticosteroids. Whenever such reactions occur, penicillin G should be discontinued unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to therapy with penicillin G. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should also be administered as indicated. Gastrointestinal: Pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. (See WARNINGS section.) Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia. Neurologic: Neuropathy. Urogenital: Nephropathy. The following adverse events have been temporally associated with parenteral administrations of penicillin G benzathine: Body as a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including allergic vasculitis, pruritis, fatigue, asthenia, and pain; aggravation of existing disorder; headache. Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; hypotension; tachycardia; palpitations; pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary embolism; vasodilation; vasovagal reaction; cerebrovascular accident; syncope. Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting; blood in stool; intestinal necrosis. Hemic and Lymphatic: Lymphadenopathy. Injection Site: Injection site reactions including pain, inflammation, lump, abscess, necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, cellulitis, hypersensitivity, atrophy, ecchymosis, and skin ulcer. Neurovascular reactions including warmth, vasospasm, pallor, mottling, gangrene, numbness of the extremities, cyanosis of the extremities, and neurovascular damage. Metabolic: Elevated BUN, creatinine, and SGOT. Musculoskeletal: Joint disorder, periostitis; exacerbation of arthritis; myoglobinuria; rhabdomyolysis. Nervous System: Nervousness; tremors; dizziness; somnolence; confusion; anxiety; euphoria; transverse myelitis; seizures; coma. A syndrome manifested by a variety of CNS symptoms such as severe agitation with confusion, visual and auditory hallucinations, and a fear of impending death (Hoigne's syndrome), has been reported after administration of penicillin G procaine and, less commonly, after injection of the combination of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine. Other symptoms associated with this syndrome, such as psychosis, seizures, dizziness, tinnitus, cyanosis, palpitations, tachycardia, and/or abnormal perception in taste, also may occur. Respiratory: Hypoxia; apnea; dyspnea. Skin: Diaphoresis. Special Senses: Blurred vision; blindness. Urogenital: Neurogenic bladder; hematuria; proteinuria; renal failure; impotence; priapism. Read the Bicillin CR (penicillin g benzathine and penicillin g procaine inj) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Streptococcal Infections Group A Infections of the upper-respiratory tract, skin and soft-tissue infections, scarlet fever, and erysipelas. The following doses are recommended: Adults and pediatric patients over 60 lbs. in weight: 2,400,000 units. Pediatric patients from 30 to 60 lbs.: 900,000 units to 1,200,000 units. Pediatric patients under 30 lbs.: 600,000 units. NOTE: Treatment with the recommended dosage is usually given at a single session using multiple IM sites when indicated. An alternative dosage schedule may be used, giving one-half (1/2) the total dose on day 1 and one-half (1/2) on day 3. This will also insure the penicillinemia required over a 10-day period; however, this alternate schedule should be used only when the physician can be assured of the patient's cooperation. Pneumococcal Infections (except pneumococcal meningitis) 600,000 units in pediatric patients and 1,200,000 units in adults, repeated every 2 or 3 days until the temperature is normal for 48 hours. Other forms of penicillin may be necessary for severe cases. Method of Administration Bicillin C-R is intended for Intramuscular Injection ONLY. Do not inject into or near an artery or nerve, or intravenously or admix with other intravenous solutions. (See WARNINGS section). Administer by DEEP INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION in the upper, outer quadrant of the buttock. In neonates, infants and small children, the midlateral aspect of the thigh may be preferable. When doses are repeated, vary the injection site. Because of the high concentration of suspended material in this product, the needle may be blocked if the injection is not made at a slow, steady rate. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

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Tetracycline, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, may antagonize the bactericidal effect of penicillin, and concurrent use of these drugs should be avoided. Concurrent administration of penicillin and probenecid increases and prolongs serum penicillin levels by decreasing the apparent volume of distribution and slowing the rate of excretion by competitively inhibiting renal tubular secretion of penicillin. Read the Bicillin CR Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Bicillin C-R and other antibacterial drugs, Bicillin C-R should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. This drug is indicated in the treatment of moderately severe infections due to penicillin-G-susceptible microorganisms that are susceptible to serum levels common to this particular dosage form. Therapy should be guided by bacteriological studies (including susceptibility testing) and by clinical response. Bicillin C-R is indicated in the treatment of the following in adults and pediatric patients: Moderately severe to severe infections of the upper-respiratory tract, scarlet fever, erysipelas, and skin and soft-tissue infections due to susceptible streptococci. NOTE: Streptococci in Groups A, C, G, H, L, and M are very sensitive to penicillin G. Other groups, including Group D (enterococci), are resistant. Penicillin G sodium or potassium is recommended for streptococcal infections with bacteremia. Moderately severe pneumonia and otitis media due to susceptible pneumococci. NOTE: Severe pneumonia, empyema, bacteremia, pericarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, and arthritis of pneumococcal etiology are better treated with penicillin G sodium or potassium during the acute stage. When high, sustained serum levels are required, penicillin G sodium or potassium, either IM or IV, should be used. This drug should not be used in the treatment of venereal diseases, including syphilis, gonorrhea, yaws, bejel, and pinta.

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A previous hypersensitivity reaction to any penicillin or to procaine is a contraindication.Last reviewed on RxList: 1/5/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Penicillin in overdosage has the potential to cause neuromuscular hyperirritability or convulsive seizures.

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Bicillin C-R (penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine injectable suspension) is supplied in packages of 10 disposable syringes as follows: 2 mL size, containing 1,200,000 units per syringe (21 gauge, thin-wall 1 inch needle for pediatric use), NDC 60793-601-10. 2 mL size, containing 1,200,000 units per syringe (21 gauge, thin-wall 1-½ inch needle), NDC 60793-600-10. Store in a refrigerator, 2° to 8° (36° to 46°F). Keep from freezing. Prescribing Information as of September 2009. Manufactured and Distributed by: King Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bristol, TN 37620 Last reviewed on RxList: 1/5/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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General Prescribing Bicillin C-R in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of a development of drug-resistant bacteria. Penicillin should be used with caution in individuals with histories of significant allergies and/or asthma. Care should be taken to avoid intravenous or intra-arterial administration, or injection into or near major peripheral nerves or blood vessels, since such injections may produce neurovascular damage. (See WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections.) A small percentage of patients are sensitive to procaine. If there is a history of sensitivity, make the usual test: Inject intradermally 0.1 mL of a 1 to 2 percent procaine solution. Development of an erythema, wheal, flare, or eruption indicates procaine sensitivity. Sensitivity should be treated by the usual methods, including barbiturates, and procaine penicillin preparations should not be used. Antihistaminics appear beneficial in treatment of procaine reactions. The use of antibiotics may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Constant observation of the patient is essential. If new infections due to bacteria or fungi appear during therapy, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures taken. Whenever allergic reactions occur, penicillin should be withdrawn unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to penicillin therapy. In prolonged therapy with penicillin, and particularly with high-dosage schedules, periodic evaluation of the renal and hematopoietic systems is recommended. Laboratory Tests In streptococcal infections, therapy must be sufficient to eliminate the organism; otherwise, the sequelae of streptococcal disease may occur. Cultures should be taken following completion of treatment to determine whether streptococci have been eradicated. Pregnancy Category B Reproduction studies performed in the mouse, rat, and rabbit have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to penicillin G. Human experience with the penicillins during pregnancy has not shown any positive evidence of adverse effects on the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women showing conclusively that harmful effects of these drugs on the fetus can be excluded. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers Soluble penicillin G is excreted in breast milk. Caution should be exercised when penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine are administered to a nursing woman. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility No long-term animal studies have been conducted with these drugs. Pediatric Use (See INDICATIONS AND USAGE and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section.) Geriatric use Clinical studies of penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. REFERENCES 1. SHAW, E.: Transverse myelitis from injection of penicillin. Am. J. Dis. Child., 111:548, 1966. 2. KNOWLES, J.: Accidental intra-arterial injection of penicillin. Am. J. Dis. Child., 111:552, 1966. 3. DARBY, C. et al: Ischemia following an intragluteal injection of benzathine-procaine penicillin G mixture in a one-year-old boy. Clin. Pediatrics, 12:485, 1973. 4. BROWN, L. & NELSON, A.: Postinfectious intravascular thrombosis with gangrene. Arch. Surg., 94:652, 1967. 5. BORENSTINE, J.: Transverse myelitis and penicillin (Correspondence). Am. J. Dis. Child., 112:166, 1966. 6. ATKINSON, J.: Transverse myelopathy secondary to penicillin injection. J. Pediatrics, 75:867, 1969. 7. TALBERT, J. et al: Gangrene of the foot following intramuscular injection in the lateral thigh: A case report with recommendations for prevention. J. Pediatrics, 70:110, 1967. 8. FISHER, T.: Medicolegal affairs. Canad. Med. Assoc. J., 112:395, 1975. 9. SCHANZER, H. et al: Accidental intra-arterial injection of penicillin G. JAMA, 242:1289, 1979.Last reviewed on RxList: 1/5/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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