Serious Cardiovascular Events Sudden Death And Pre-existing Structural Cardiac Abnormalities Or Other Serious Heart Problems Children and Adolescents Sudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Adults Sudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Hypertension And Other Cardiovascular Conditions Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2-4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3-6 bpm), and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with pre-existing hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Assessing Cardiovascular Status In Patients Being Treated With Stimulant Medications Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g. electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation. Psychiatric Adverse Events Pre-Existing Psychosis Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with pre-existing psychotic disorder. Bipolar Illness Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of mixed/manic episode in such patients. Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. Emergence Of New Psychotic Or Manic Symptoms Treatment-emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses. If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be appropriate. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebocontrolled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients. Aggression Aggressive behavior or hostility is often observed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD. Although there is no systematic evidence that stimulants cause aggressive behavior or hostility, patients beginning treatment for ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of or worsening of aggressive behavior or hostility. Long-Term Suppression Of Growth Monitor growth in children during treatment with stimulants. Patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted. Careful follow-up of weight and height in children ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated children over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development. In a controlled trial of ADDERALL XR in adolescents, mean weight change from baseline within the initial 4 weeks of therapy was -1.1 lbs. and -2.8 lbs., respectively, for patients receiving 10 mg and 20 mg ADDERALL XR. Higher doses were associated with greater weight loss within the initial 4 weeks of treatment. Chronic use of amphetamines can be expected to cause a similar suppression of growth. Seizures There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizures, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in the absence of seizures, and very rarely, in patients without a history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures. In the presence of seizures, ADDERALL XR should be discontinued. Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud's phenomenon Stimulants, including ADDERALL XR, used to treat ADHD are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown. Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's phenomenon, were observed in post-marketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. Careful observation for digital changes is necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients. Visual Disturbance Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been reported with stimulant treatment. Tics Amphetamines have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette's syndrome. Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette's syndrome in patients and their families should precede use of stimulant medications. Prescribing And Dispensing The least amount of amphetamine feasible should be prescribed or dispensed at one time in order to minimize the possibility of overdosage. ADDERALL XR should be used with caution in patients who use other sympathomimetic drugs. Patient Counseling Information Information On Medication Guide Inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with ADDERALL XR and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide is available for ADDERALL XR. Instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and assist them in understanding its contents. Give patients the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document. Controlled Substance Status/Potential For Abuse, Misuse, And Dependence Advise patients that ADDERALL XR is a federally controlled substance because it can be abused or lead to dependence. Additionally, emphasize that ADDERALL XR should be stored in a safe place to prevent misuse and/or abuse. Evaluate patient history (including family history) of abuse or dependence on alcohol, prescription medicines, or illicit drugs [see Drug Abuse And Dependence]. Serious Cardiovascular Risks Advise patients of serious cardiovascular risk (including sudden death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hypertension) with ADDERALL XR. Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Psychiatric Risks Prior to initiating treatment with ADDERALL XR, adequately screen patients with comorbid depressive symptoms to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder. Such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and/or depression. Additionally, ADDERALL XR therapy at usual doses may cause treatment-emergent psychotic or manic symptoms in patients without prior history of psychotic symptoms or mania [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Circulation Problems In Fingers And Toes [Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud's phenomenon] Instruct patients beginning treatment with ADDERALL XR about the risk of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud's Phenomenon, and in associated signs and symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red. Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes. Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking ADDERALL XR. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Growth Monitor growth in children during treatment with ADDERALL XR, and patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Pregnancy Advise patients to notify their physicians if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during treatment [see Use In Specific Populations]. Nursing Advise patients not to breast feed if they are taking ADDERALL XR [see Use In Specific Populations]. Impairment In Ability To Operate Machinery Or Vehicles ADDERALL XR may impair the ability of the patient to engage in potentially hazardous activities such as operating machinery or vehicles; the patient should therefore be cautioned accordingly. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility No evidence of carcinogenicity was found in studies in which d,l-amphetamine (enantiomer ratio of 1:1) was administered to mice and rats in the diet for 2 years at doses of up to 30 mg/kg/day in male mice, 19 mg/kg/day in female mice, and 5 mg/kg/day in male and female rats. These doses are approximately 2.4, 1.5, and 0.8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose for children of 30 mg/day, on a mg/m² body surface area basis. Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in ADDERALL XR (d- to l- ratio of 3:1), was not clastogenic in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test in vivo and was negative when tested in the E. coli component of the Ames test in vitro. d,l-Amphetamine (1:1 enantiomer ratio) has been reported to produce a positive response in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, an equivocal response in the Ames test, and negative responses in the in vitro sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration assays. Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in ADDERALL XR (d- to l- ratio of 3:1), did not adversely affect fertility or early embryonic development in the rat at doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 8 times the maximum recommended human dose for adolescents of 20 mg/day, on a mg/m² body surface area basis). Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio present in ADDERALL XR (d- to l- ratio of 3:1), had no apparent effects on embryofetal morphological development or survival when orally administered to pregnant rats and rabbits throughout the period of organogenesis at doses of up to 6 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 2 and 12 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for adolescents of 20 mg/day, on a mg/m² body surface area basis. Fetal malformations and death have been reported in mice following parenteral administration of d-amphetamine doses of 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 10 times the MRHD for adolescents on a mg/m² basis) or greater to pregnant animals. Administration of these doses was also associated with severe maternal toxicity. A study was conducted in which pregnant rats received daily oral doses of amphetamine (d- to l- enantiomer ratio of 3:1, the same as in ADDERALL XR) of 2, 6, and 10 mg/kg from gestation day 6 to lactation day 20. These doses are approximately 0.8, 2, and 4 times the MRHD for adolescents of 20 mg/day, on a mg/m² basis. All doses caused hyperactivity and decreased weight gain in the dams. A decrease in pup survival was seen at all doses. A decrease in pup bodyweight was seen at 6 and 10 mg/kg which correlated with delays in developmental landmarks. Increased pup locomotor activity was seen at 10 mg/kg on day 22 postpartum but not at 5 weeks postweaning. When pups were tested for reproductive performance at maturation, gestational weight gain, number of implantations, and number of delivered pups were decreased in the group whose mothers had been given 10 mg/kg. A number of studies in rodents indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposure to amphetamine (d- or d, l-), at doses similar to those used clinically, can result in long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations. Reported behavioral effects include learning and memory deficits, altered locomotor activity, and changes in sexual function. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. There has been one report of severe congenital bony deformity, tracheoesophageal fistula, and anal atresia (vater association) in a baby born to a woman who took dextroamphetamine sulfate with lovastatin during the first trimester of pregnancy. Amphetamines should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Nonteratogenic Effects Infants born to mothers dependent on amphetamines have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight. Also, these infants may experience symptoms of withdrawal as demonstrated by dysphoria, including agitation, and significant lassitude. Labor And Delivery The effects of ADDERALL XR on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. Nursing Mothers Amphetamines are excreted in human milk. Mothers taking amphetamines should be advised to refrain from nursing. Pediatric Use ADDERALL XR is indicated for use in children 6 years of age and older. The safety and efficacy of ADDERALL XR in children under 6 years of age have not been studied. Long-term effects of amphetamines in children have not been well established. In a juvenile developmental study, rats received daily oral doses of amphetamine (d to l enantiomer ratio of 3:1, the same as in ADDERALL XR) of 2, 6, or 20 mg/kg on days 7-13 of age; from day 14 to approximately day 60 of age these doses were given b.i.d. for total daily doses of 4, 12, or 40 mg/kg. The latter doses are approximately 0.6, 2, and 6 times the maximum recommended human dose for children of 30 mg/day, on a mg/m² basis. Post dosing hyperactivity was seen at all doses; motor activity measured prior to the daily dose was decreased during the dosing period but the decreased motor activity was largely absent after an 18 day drug-free recovery period. Performance in the Morris water maze test for learning and memory was impaired at the 40 mg/kg dose, and sporadically at the lower doses, when measured prior to the daily dose during the treatment period; no recovery was seen after a 19 day drug-free period. A delay in the developmental milestones of vaginal opening and preputial separation was seen at 40 mg/kg but there was no effect on fertility. Geriatric Use ADDERALL XR has not been studied in the geriatric population. Last reviewed on RxList: 12/12/2013
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.