Drug: Avandamet

AVANDAMET contains 2 oral antidiabetic drugs: rosiglitazone maleate and metformin hydrochloride. Rosiglitazone maleate is an oral antidiabetic agent, which acts primarily by increasing insulin sensitivity. Rosiglitazone improves glycemic control while reducing circulating insulin levels. Rosiglitazone maleate is not chemically or functionally related to the sulfonylureas, the biguanides, or the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. Chemically, rosiglitazone maleate is (±)-5-[[4-[2- (methyl-2-pyridinylamino)ethoxy]phenyl]methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione, (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1) with a molecular weight of 473.52 (357.44 free base). The molecule has a single chiral center and is present as a racemate. Due to rapid interconversion, the enantiomers are functionally indistinguishable. The molecular formula is C18H19N3O3S•C4H4O4. Rosiglitazone maleate is a white to off-white solid with a melting point range of 122° to 123°C. The pKa values of rosiglitazone maleate are 6.8 and 6.1. It is readily soluble in ethanol and a buffered aqueous solution with pH of 2.3; solubility decreases with increasing pH in the physiological range. The structural formula of rosiglitazone maleate is: Metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride) is not chemically or pharmacologically related to any other classes of oral antidiabetic agents. Metformin hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline compound with a molecular formula of C4H11N5•HCl and a molecular weight of 165.63. Metformin hydrochloride is freely soluble in water and is practically insoluble in acetone, ether, and chloroform. The pKa of metformin is 12.4. The pH of a 1% aqueous solution of metformin hydrochloride is 6.68. The structural formula of metformin hydrochloride is: AVANDAMET is available for oral administration as film-coated tablets containing rosiglitazone maleate and metformin hydrochloride equivalent to: 2 mg rosiglitazone with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride (2 mg/500 mg), 4 mg rosiglitazone with 500 mg metformin hydrochloride (4 mg/500 mg), 2 mg rosiglitazone with 1,000 mg metformin hydrochloride (2 mg/1,000 mg), and 4 mg rosiglitazone with 1,000 mg metformin hydrochloride (4 mg/1,000 mg). Inactive ingredients are: hypromellose 2910, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 400, povidone 29-32, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide, and 1 or more of the following: red and yellow iron oxides.

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The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail elsewhere in the labeling:
  • Lactic Acidosis [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Cardiac Failure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Maj or Adverse Cardiovascular Events [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Edema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Weight Gain [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Hepatic Effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Macular Edema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Fractures [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Hematologic Effects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Vitamin B12 Levels [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Ovulation [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
Clinical Trial Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Patients With Inadequate Glycemic Control on Diet and Exercise Table 4 summarizes the incidence and types of adverse reactions without regard to causality reported in a controlled, 32-week, double-blind clinical trial of AVANDAMET in patients with inadequate glycemic control on diet and exercise (N = 468). Table 4: Adverse Events (≥5% for AVANDAMET) Reported by Patients With Inadequate Glycemic Control on Diet and Exercise in a 32-Week, Double-blind Clinical Trial of AVANDAMET
Preferred Term AVANDAMET
N = 155 % Metformin
N = 154 % Rosiglitazone
N = 159 % Nausea/vomiting 16 13 8 Diarrhea 14 21 7 Headache 11 12 10 Dyspepsia 10 8 9 Upper respiratory tract infection 9 7 8 Dizziness 8 3 5 Edema 6 3 7 Nasopharyngitis 6 5 4 Abdominal pain 5 6 7 Arthralgia 5 3 7 Loose stools 5 6 1 Constipation 5 4 6 Mild (no intervention required) to moderate (minor intervention required) symptomatic hypoglycemia was reported by 12% (18/155) of patients treated with AVANDAMET, 14/154 (9%) with metformin, and 8% (13/159) with rosiglitazone. Approximately half of these episodes were accompanied by a simultaneous capillary glucose measurement, and the rate of confirmed hypoglycemia (blood glucose ≤ 50 mg/dL) was low in this clinical trial: 0.6% (1/155) for AVANDAMET, 1.3% (2/154) for metformin, and 0% with rosiglitazone. No hypoglycemic episode led to withdrawal in patients treated with AVANDAMET, and no patients required medical intervention due to hypoglycemia. The incidence of edema was 6% on AVANDAMET compared with 7% on rosiglitazone and 3% on metformin. The incidence of anemia was 4% in patients treated with AVANDAMET compared with either rosiglitazone (2%) or metformin (0%). Patients Inadequately Controlled on Rosiglitazone Monotherapy The incidence and types of adverse events reported in controlled, 26-week clinical trials of rosiglitazone administered in combination with metformin 2,500 mg/day in comparison with adverse reactions reported in association with rosiglitazone and metformin monotherapies are shown in Table 5. Overall, the types of adverse reactions without regard to causality reported when rosiglitazone was used in combination with metformin were similar to those reported during monotherapy with rosiglitazone. Table 5: Adverse Events (≥5% for Rosiglitazone Plus Metformin) Reported by Patients in 26-Week, Double-blind Clinical r “rials of Rosiglitazone Added to Metformin Therapy
Preferred Term Rosiglitazone + Metformin
N = 338 % Rosiglitazone
N = 2,526 % Placebo
N = 601 % Metformin
N = 225 % Upper respiratory tract infection 16.0 9.9 8.7 8.9 Diarrhea 12.7 2.3 3.3 15.6 Injury 8.0 7.6 4.3 7.6 Anemia 7.1 1.9 0.7 2.2 Headache 6.5 5.9 5.0 8.9 Sinusitis 6.2 3.2 4.5 5.3 Fatigue 5.9 3.6 5.0 4.0 Back pain 5.0 4.0 3.8 4.0 Viral infection 5.0 3.2 4.0 3.6 Arthralgia 5.0 3.0 4.0 2.2 Reports of hypoglycemia in patients treated with rosiglitazone added to maximum metformin therapy in double-blind trials were more frequent (3.0%) than in patients treated with rosiglitazone (0.6%) or metformin monotherapies (1.3%) or placebo (0.2%). Overall, anemia and edema were generally mild to moderate in severity and usually did not require discontinuation of treatment with rosiglitazone. Edema was reported in 4.8% of patients receiving rosiglitazone compared with 1.3% on placebo, and 2.2% on metformin monotherapy and 4.4% on rosiglitazone in combination with maximum doses of metformin. Reports of anemia (7.1%) were greater in patients treated with rosiglitazone added to metformin compared with monotherapy with rosiglitazone. Lower pre-treatment hemoglobin/hematocrit levels in patients enrolled in the metformin and rosiglitazone combination therapy clinical trials may have contributed to the higher reporting rate of anemia in these trials. Combination With Insulin The incidence of hypoglycemia (confirmed by fingerstick blood glucose concentration ≤ 50 mg/dL) was 14% for patients on AVANDAMET plus insulin compared with 10% for patients on insulin monotherapy. The incidence of edema was 7% when insulin was added to AVANDAMET compared with 3% with insulin monotherapy. This trial excluded patients with pre-existing heart failure or new or worsening edema on AVANDAMET. However, in 26-week, double-blind, fixed-dose trials of rosiglitazone added to insulin, edema was reported with higher frequency (rosiglitazone in combination with insulin, 14.7%; insulin, 5.4%) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. In trials in which rosiglitazone was added to insulin, rosiglitazone increased the risk of congestive heart failure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. In a trial in which insulin was added to AVANDAMET, no myocardial ischemia was observed in the insulin group (N = 158), and no congestive heart failure was reported in either group. There was one myocardial ischemic event and one sudden death in the group receiving AVANDAMET plus insulin (N = 161). [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] The incidence of anemia was 2% for AVANDAMET in combination with insulin compared with 1% for insulin monotherapy. Long-term Trial of Rosiglitazone as Monotherapy A long-term, 4- to 6-year trial (ADOPT) compared the use of rosiglitazone (n = 1,456), glyburide (n = 1,441), and metformin (n = 1,454) as monotherapy in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were not previously treated with antidiabetic medication. Table 6 presents adverse reactions without regard to causality; rates are expressed per 100 patient-years (PY) exposure to account for the differences in exposure to trial medication across the 3 treatment groups. In ADOPT, fractures were reported in a greater number of women treated with rosiglitazone (9.3%, 2.7/100 patient-years) compared with glyburide (3.5%, 1.3/100 patientyears) or metformin (5.1%, 1.5/100 patient-years). The majority of the fractures in the women who received rosiglitazone were reported in the upper arm, hand, and foot. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] The observed incidence of fractures for male patients was similar among the 3 treatment groups. Table 6: On-therapy Adverse Events [≥5 Events/100 Patient-years (PY)] in any Treatment Group Reported in a 4- to 6-Year Clinical Trial of B osiglitazone as Monotherapy (ADOPT)
Preferred Term Rosiglitazone
N = 1,456
PY = 4,954 Glyburide
N = 1,441
PY = 4,244 Metformin
N = 1,454
PY = 4,906 Nasopharyngitis 6.3 6.9 6.6 Back pain 5.1 4.9 5.3 Arthralgia 5.0 4.8 4.2 Hypertension 4.4 6.0 6.1 Upper respiratory tract infection 4.3 5.0 4.7 Hypoglycemia 2.9 13.0 3.4 Diarrhea 2.5 3.2 6.8 Long-term Trial of Rosiglitazone as Combination Therapy (RECORD) RECORD (Rosiglitazone Evaluated for Cardiac Outcomes and Regulation of Glycemia in Diabetes) was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on maximum doses of metformin or sulfonylurea (glyburide, gliclazide, or glimepiride) to compare the time to reach the combined cardiovascular endpoint of cardiovascular death or cardiovascular hospitalization between patients randomized to the addition of rosiglitazone versus metformin or sulfonylurea. The trial included patients who have failed metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy; those who failed metformin (n = 2,222) were randomized to receive either add-on rosiglitazone (n = 1,117) or add-on sulfonylurea (n = 1,105), and those who failed sulfonylurea (n = 2,225) were randomized to receive either add-on rosiglitazone (n = 1,103) or add-on metformin (n = 1,122). Patients were treated to target HbA1c ≤ 7% throughout the trial. The mean age of patients in this trial was 58 years, 52% were male, and the mean duration of follow-up was 5.5 years. Rosiglitazone demonstrated non-inferiority to active control for the primary endpoint of cardiovascular hospitalization or cardiovascular death (HR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.85-1.16). There were no significant differences between groups for secondary endpoints with the exception of congestive heart failure (see Table 7). The incidence of congestive heart failure was significantly greater among patients randomized to rosiglitazone. Table 7:Cardiovascular (CV) Outcomes for the RECORD Trial
Primary Endpoint Rosiglitazone
N = 2,220 Active Control
N = 2,227 Hazard Ratio 95% CI CV death or CV hospitalization 321 323 0.99 0.85-1.16 Secondary Endpoint All-cause death 136 157 0.86 0.68-1.08 CV death 60 71 0.84 0.59-1.18 Myocardial infarction 64 56 1.14 0.80-1.63 Stroke 46 63 0.72 0.49-1.06 CV death, myocardial infarction, or stroke 154 165 0.93 0.74-1.15 Heart failure 61 29 2.10 1.35-3.27 There was an increased incidence of bone fracture for subjects randomized to rosiglitazone in addition to metformin or sulfonylurea compared with those randomized to metformin plus sulfonylurea (8.3% versus 5.3%) [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. The majority of fractures were reported in the upper limbs and distal lower limbs. The risk of fracture appeared to be higher in females relative to control (11.5% versus 6.3%), than in males relative to control (5.3% versus 4.3%). Additional data are necessary to determine whether there is an increased risk of fracture in males after a longer period of follow-up. Laboratory Abnormalities Hematologic Decreases in mean hemoglobin and hematocrit occurred in a dose-related fashion in adult patients treated with rosiglitazone (mean decreases in individual trials as much as 1.0 gram/dL hemoglobin and as much as 3.3% hematocrit). The changes occurred primarily during the first 3 months following initiation of rosiglitazone therapy or following an increase in rosiglitazone dose. The time course and magnitude of decreases were similar in patients treated with a combination of rosiglitazone and other hypoglycemic agents or monotherapy with rosiglitazone. Pre-treatment levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower in patients in metformin combination trials and may have contributed to the higher reporting rate of anemia. In a single trial in pediatric patients, decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (mean decreases of 0.29 g/dL and 0.95%, respectively) were reported with rosiglitazone. White blood cell counts also decreased slightly in adult patients treated with rosiglitazone. Decreases in hematologic parameters may be related to increased plasma volume observed with rosiglitazone treatment. In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29 weeks' duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such a decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Lipids Changes in serum lipids have been observed following treatment with rosiglitazone in adults [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Serum Transaminase Levels In pre-approval clinical trials in 4,598 patients treated with rosiglitazone encompassing approximately 3,600 patient-years of exposure, and in a longterm 4- to 6-year trial in 1,456 patients treated with rosiglitazone (4,954 patient-years exposure), there was no evidence of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In pre-approval controlled trials, 0.2% of patients treated with rosiglitazone had reversible elevations in ALT >3X the upper limit of normal compared with 0.2% on placebo and 0.5% on active comparators. The ALT elevations in patients treated with rosiglitazone were reversible. Hyperbilirubinemia was found in 0.3% of patients treated with rosiglitazone compared with 0.9% treated with placebo and 1% in patients treated with active comparators. In pre-approval clinical trials, there were no cases of idiosyncratic drug reactions leading to hepatic failure. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] In the 4- to 6-year ADOPT trial, patients treated with rosiglitazone (4,954 patient-years exposure), glyburide (4,244 patient-years exposure), or metformin (4,906 patient-years exposure) as monotherapy, had the same rate of ALT increase to >3X upper limit of normal (0.3 per 100 patient-years exposure). In the RECORD trial, patients randomized to rosiglitazone in addition to metformin or sulfonylurea (10,849 patient-years exposure) and to metformin plus sulfonylurea (10,209 patientyears exposure) had a rate of ALT increase to >3X upper limit of normal of approximately 0.2 and 0.3 per 100 patient-years exposure, respectively. Postmarketing Experience In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the events described below have been identified during post-approval use of AVANDAMET or its individual components. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or to always establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. In patients receiving thiazolidinedione therapy, serious adverse events with or without a fatal outcome, potentially related to volume expansion (e.g., congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions) have been reported [see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. There are postmarketing reports with rosiglitazone of hepatitis, hepatic enzyme elevations to 3 or more times the upper limit of normal, and hepatic failure with and without fatal outcome, although causality has not been established. There are postmarketing reports with rosiglitazone of rash, pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, anaphylactic reaction, Stevens-Johnson syndrome [see CONTRAINDICATIONS], and new onset or worsening diabetic macular edema with decreased visual acuity [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. (See also GLUCOPHAGE® prescribing information.) Read the Avandamet (rosiglitazone maleate and metformin hcl) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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The dosage of antidiabetic therapy with AVANDAMET should be individualized on the basis of effectiveness and tolerability. The risk-benefit of initiating monotherapy versus dual therapy with AVANDAMET should be considered. Starting Dose AVANDAMET is generally given in divided doses with meals. All patients should start the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET at the lowest recommended dose. Further increases in the dose of rosiglitazone should be accompanied by careful monitoring for adverse events related to fluid retention [see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Patients Inadequately Controlled on Diet and Exercise If therapy with a combination tablet containing rosiglitazone and metformin is considered appropriate for a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on diet and exercise alone, the recommended starting dose of AVANDAMET is 2 mg/500 mg administered once or twice daily. For patients with HbA1c >11% or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >270 mg/dL, a starting dose of 2 mg/500 mg twice daily may be considered. The dose of AVANDAMET may be increased in increments of 2 mg/500 mg per day given in divided doses if patients are not adequately controlled after 4 weeks. The maximum dose of AVANDAMET is 8 mg/2,000 mg per day. Patients Inadequately Controlled on Rosiglitazone or Metformin Monotherapy If therapy with a combination tablet containing rosiglitazone and metformin is considered appropriate for a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on rosiglitazone or metformin monotherapy, then the selection of the dose of AVANDAMET should be based on the patient's current doses of rosiglitazone and/or metformin. To switch to AVANDAMET for patients currently treated with metformin, the usual starting dose of AVANDAMET is 4 mg rosiglitazone (total daily dose) plus the dose of metformin already being taken (see Table 1). To switch to AVANDAMET for patients currently treated with rosiglitazone, the usual starting dose of AVANDAMET is 1,000 mg metformin (total daily dose) plus the dose of rosiglitazone already being taken (see Table 1). When switching from combination therapy of rosiglitazone plus metformin as separate tablets, the usual starting dose of AVANDAMET is the dose of rosiglitazone and metformin already being taken. Table 1: AVANDAMET Starting Dose for Patients Treated With Metformin and/or Rosiglitazone
PRIOR THERAPY Usual AVANDAMET Starting Dose Total Daily Dose Tablet Strength Number of Tablets Metformina 1,000 mg/day 2 mg/500 mg 1 tablet twice a day 2,000 mg/day 2 mg/1,000 mg 1 tablet twice a day Rosiglitazone 4 mg/day 2 mg/500 mg 1 tablet twice a day 8 mg/day 4 mg/500 mg 1 tablet twice a day aFor patients on doses of metformin between 1,000 and 2,000 mg/day, initiation of AVANDAMET requires individualization of therapy. Dose Titration AVANDAMET is generally given in divided doses with meals, with gradual dose escalation. This reduces gastrointestinal side effects (largely due to metformin) and permits determination of the minimum effective dose for the individual patient. Sufficient time should be given to assess adequacy of therapeutic response. FPG should be used initially to determine the therapeutic response to AVANDAMET. If additional glycemic control is needed, the daily dose of AVANDAMET may be increased by increments of 4 mg rosiglitazone and/or 500 mg metformin. After an increase in metformin dosage, dose titration is recommended if patients are not adequately controlled after 1 to 2 weeks. After an increase in rosiglitazone dosage, dose titration is recommended if patients are not adequately controlled after 8 to 12 weeks. Maximum Dose The maximum recommended total daily dose of AVANDAMET is 8 mg rosiglitazone (taken as 4 mg twice daily) and 2,000 mg metformin (taken as 1,000 mg twice daily). Specific Patient Populations Renal Impairment Any dosage adjustment should be based on a careful assessment of renal function. Generally, elderly, debilitated, and malnourished patients should not be titrated to the maximum dose of AVANDAMET. Monitoring of renal function is necessary to aid in prevention of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, particularly in the elderly [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Hepatic Impairment Liver enzymes should be measured prior to initiating treatment with AVANDAMET. Therapy with AVANDAMET should not be initiated if the patient exhibits clinical evidence of active liver disease or increased serum transaminase levels (ALT >2.5X upper limit of normal at start of therapy). After initiation of AVANDAMET, liver enzymes should be monitored periodically per the clinical judgment of the healthcare professional [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Geriatric The initial and maintenance dosing of AVANDAMET should be conservative in patients with advanced age, due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population. Pediatric Safety and effectiveness of AVANDAMET in pediatric patients have not been established. AVANDAMET and rosiglitazone are not recommended for use in pediatric patients. Pregnancy AVANDAMET is not recommended for use in pregnancy.

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Drugs Metabolized By Cytochrome P450 An inhibitor of CYP2C8 (e.g., gemfibrozil) may increase the AUC of rosiglitazone and an inducer of CYP2C8 (e.g., rifampin) may decrease the AUC of rosiglitazone. Therefore, if an inhibitor or an inducer of CYP2C8 is started or stopped during treatment with rosiglitazone, changes in diabetes treatment may be needed based upon clinical response. [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Cationic Drugs Although drug interactions for metformin with cationic drugs (e.g., amiloride, digoxin, morphine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, ranitidine, triamterene, trimethoprim, and vancomycin) remain theoretical (except for cimetidine), careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of AVANDAMET and/or the interfering drug is recommended in patients who are taking cationic medications that are excreted via the proximal renal tubular secretory system. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Drugs That Produce Hyperglycemia When drugs that produce hyperglycemia, which may lead to loss of glycemic control, are administered to a patient receiving AVANDAMET, the patient should be closely observed to maintain adequate glycemic control. [See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY) Read the Avandamet Drug Interactions Center for a complete guide to possible interactions Learn More »

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AVANDAMET is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Important Limitations of Use
  • Due to its mechanism of action, rosiglitazone is active only in the presence of endogenous insulin. Therefore, AVANDAMET should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes.
  • Coadministration of AVANDAMET with insulin is not recommended [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].

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  • Initiation in patients with established New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV heart failure [see BOXED WARNING].
  • Use in patients with renal disease or renal dysfunction [e.g., as suggested by serum creatinine levels ≥1.5 mg/dL (males), ≥1.4 mg/dL (females), or abnormal creatinine clearance], which may also result from conditions such as cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, and septicemia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
  • Use in patients with acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma.
  • Use in patients undergoing radiologic studies involving intravascular administration of iodinated contrast materials, because use of such products may result in acute alteration of renal function. AVANDAMET should be temporarily discontinued in these patients. [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]
  • Use in patients with a history of a hypersensitivity reaction to rosiglitazone or any of the product's ingredients.
Last reviewed on RxList: 5/28/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Rosiglitazone: Limited data are available with regard to overdosage in humans. In clinical trials in volunteers, rosiglitazone has been administered at single oral doses of up to 20 mg and was well tolerated. In the event of an overdose, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated as dictated by the patient's clinical status. Metformin: Hypoglycemia has not been seen with ingestion of up to 85 grams of metformin, although lactic acidosis has occurred in such circumstances [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Metformin is dialyzable with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions. Therefore, hemodialysis may be useful for removal of accumulated metformin from patients in whom metformin overdosage is suspected.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths Each film-coated oval tablet contains rosiglitazone as the maleate and metformin hydrochloride as follows:
  • 2 mg/500 mg - pale pink, debossed with gsk on one side and 2/500 on the other
  • 4 mg/500 mg - orange, debossed with gsk on one side and 4/500 on the other
  • 2 mg/1,000 mg - yellow, debossed with gsk on one side and 2/1000 on the other
  • 4 mg/1,000 mg - pink, debossed with gsk on one side and 4/1000 on the other
Storage And Handling Each film-coated oval tablet contains rosiglitazone as the maleate and metformin hydrochloride as follows: 2 mg/500 mg - pale pink, tablet, debossed with gsk on one side and 2/500 on the other.
4 mg/500 mg - orange, tablet, debossed with gsk on one side and 4/500 on the other.
2 mg/1,000 mg - yellow, tablet, debossed with gsk on one side and 2/1000 on the other.
4 mg/1,000 mg - pink, tablet, debossed with gsk on one side and 4/1000 on the other. 2 mg/500 mg bottles of 60: NDC 0173-0837-18
4 mg/500 mg bottles of 60: NDC 0173-0839-18
2 mg/1,000 mg bottles of 60: NDC 0173-0838-18
4 mg/1,000 mg bottles of 60: NDC 0173-0840-18 Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container. GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. May 2014 Last reviewed on RxList: 5/28/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Lactic Acidosis Incidence and Management Lactic acidosis is a rare, but serious, metabolic complication that can occur due to metformin accumulation during treatment with AVANDAMET; when it occurs, it is fatal in approximately 50% of cases. Lactic acidosis may also occur in association with a number of pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, and whenever there is significant tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxemia. Lactic acidosis is characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/L), decreased blood pH, electrolyte disturbances with an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio. When metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma levels >5 mcg/mL are generally found. The reported incidence of lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin is very low (approximately 0.03 cases/1,000 patient-years of exposure, with approximately 0.015 fatal cases/1,000 patient-years of exposure). Reported cases have occurred primarily in diabetic patients with significant renal insufficiency, including both intrinsic renal disease and renal hypoperfusion, often in the setting of multiple concomitant medical/surgical problems and multiple concomitant medications. Patients with congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic management, in particular those with unstable or acute congestive heart failure who are at risk of hypoperfusion and hypoxemia, are at increased risk of lactic acidosis. The risk of lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patient's age. The risk of lactic acidosis may, therefore, be significantly decreased by regular monitoring of renal function in patients taking AVANDAMET and by use of the minimum effective dose of AVANDAMET. In particular, treatment of the elderly should be accompanied by careful monitoring of renal function. Treatment with AVANDAMET should not be initiated in patients ≥80 years of age unless measurement of creatinine clearance demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, as these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis. In addition, AVANDAMET should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis. Because impaired hepatic function may significantly limit the ability to clear lactate, AVANDAMET should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. Patients should be cautioned against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, when taking AVANDAMET, since alcohol potentiates the effects of metformin on lactate metabolism. In addition, AVANDAMET should be temporarily discontinued prior to any intravascular radiocontrast study and for any surgical procedure. The onset of lactic acidosis often is subtle, and accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress. There may be associated hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias with more marked acidosis. The patient and the patient's physician must be aware of the possible importance of such symptoms and the patient should be instructed to notify the physician immediately if they occur. AVANDAMET should be withdrawn until the situation is clarified. Serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate levels, and even blood metformin levels may be useful. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of AVANDAMET, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of therapy, are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease. Levels of fasting venous plasma lactate above the upper limit of normal but less than 5 mmol/L in patients taking AVANDAMET do not necessarily indicate impending lactic acidosis and may be explainable by other mechanisms, such as poorly controlled diabetes or obesity, vigorous physical activity, or technical problems in sample handling. Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia). Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting. In a patient with lactic acidosis who is taking AVANDAMET, the drug should be discontinued immediately and general supportive measures promptly instituted. Because metformin is dialyzable (with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions), prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove the accumulated metformin. Such management often results in prompt reversal of symptoms and recovery [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Factors That May Predispose Patients to Lactic Acidosis Assessment of Renal Function: Metformin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of impairment of renal function. Thus, patients with serum creatinine levels above the upper limit of normal for their age should not receive AVANDAMET. In patients with advanced age, AVANDAMET should be carefully titrated to establish the minimum dose for adequate glycemic effect, because aging is associated with reduced renal function. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Use in Specific Populations] Before initiation of therapy with AVANDAMET and at least annually thereafter, renal function should be assessed and verified as normal. In patients in whom development of renal dysfunction is anticipated, renal function should be assessed more frequently and AVANDAMET discontinued if evidence of renal impairment is present. Medications That Affect Renal Function: Concomitant medication(s) that may affect renal function or result in significant hemodynamic change or may interfere with the disposition of metformin, such as cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion [see DRUG INTERACTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY], should be used with caution. Hypoxic States: Cardiovascular collapse (shock) from whatever cause, acute congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and other conditions characterized by hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur in patients receiving AVANDAMET, the drug should be promptly discontinued. Radiologic Studies With Intravascular Iodinated Contrast Materials: Intravascular contrast studies with iodinated materials can lead to acute alteration of renal function and have been associated with lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin [see CONTRAINDICATIONS]. Therefore, in patients in whom any such study is planned, AVANDAMET should be temporarily discontinued at the time of or prior to the procedure, and withheld for 48 hours subsequent to the procedure and reinstituted only after renal function has been re-evaluated and found to be normal. Surgical Procedures: Use of AVANDAMET should be temporarily suspended for any surgical procedure (except minor procedures not associated with restricted intake of food and fluids) and should not be restarted until the patient's oral intake has resumed and renal function has been evaluated as normal. Alcohol Intake: Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Patients, therefore, should be warned against excessive alcohol intake, acute or chronic, while receiving AVANDAMET. Change in Clinical Status of Patients With Previously Controlled Diabetes: A patient with type 2 diabetes previously well-controlled on AVANDAMET who develops laboratory abnormalities or clinical illness (especially vague and poorly defined illness) should be evaluated promptly for evidence of ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis. Evaluation should include serum electrolytes and ketones, blood glucose, and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. If acidosis of either form occurs, AVANDAMET must be stopped immediately and other appropriate corrective measures initiated. Cardiac Failure Rosiglitazone, like other thiazolidinediones, alone or in combination with other antidiabetic agents, can cause fluid retention, which may exacerbate or lead to heart failure. Patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If these signs and symptoms develop, the heart failure should be managed according to current standards of care. Furthermore, discontinuation or dose reduction of rosiglitazone must be considered [see BOXED WARNING]. Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) NYHA Class I and II treated with rosiglitazone have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. A 52-week, double-blind, placebocontrolled, echocardiographic trial was conducted in 224 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and NYHA Class I or II CHF (ejection fraction < 45%) on background antidiabetic and CHF therapy. An independent committee conducted a blinded evaluation of fluid-related events (including congestive heart failure) and cardiovascular hospitalizations according to predefined criteria (adjudication). Separate from the adjudication, other cardiovascular adverse events were reported by investigators. Although no treatment difference in change from baseline of ejection fractions was observed, more cardiovascular adverse events were observed with rosiglitazone treatment compared with placebo during the 52-week trial. (See Table 2.) Table 2: Emergent Cardiovascular Adverse Events in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure (NYHA Class I and II) Treated With Rosiglitazone or Placebo (in Addition to Background Antidiabetic and CHF Therapy)
Events Rosiglitazone
N = 110
n (%) Placebo
N = 114
n (%) Adjudicated Cardiovascular deaths 5(5%) 4(4%) CHF worsening 7(6%) 4(4%)   with overnight hospitalization 5 (5%) 4 (4%)    without overnight hospitalization 2 (2%) 0 (0%) New or worsening edema 28(25%) 10(9%) New or worsening dyspnea 29(26%) 19(17%) Increases in CHF medication 36(33%) 20(18%) Cardiovascular hospitalizationa 21(19%) 15(13%) Investigator-reported, non-adj udicated Ischemic adverse events 10(9%) 5(4%)   Myocardial infarction 5 (5%) 2 (2%)   Angina 6 (5%) 3 (3%) a Includes hospitalization for any cardiovascular reason. In a long-term, cardiovascular outcome trial (RECORD) in patients with type 2 diabetes [see ADVERSE REACTIONS], the incidence of heart failure was higher in patients treated with rosiglitazone [2.7% (61/2,220) compared with active control 1.3% (29/2,227), HR 2.10 (95% CI: 1.35, 3.27)]. Initiation of AVANDAMET in patients with established NYHA Class III or IV heart failure is contraindicated. AVANDAMET is not recommended in patients with symptomatic heart failure. [See BOXED WARNING.] Patients experiencing acute coronary syndromes have not been studied in controlled clinical trials. In view of the potential for development of heart failure in patients having an acute coronary event, initiation of AVANDAMET is not recommended for patients experiencing an acute coronary event, and discontinuation of AVANDAMET during this acute phase should be considered. Patients with NYHA Class III and IV cardiac status (with or without CHF) have not been studied in controlled clinical trials. AVANDAMET is not recommended in patients with NYHA Class III and IV cardiac status. Congestive Heart Failure During Coadministration of Rosiglitazone With Insulin In trials in which rosiglitazone was added to insulin, rosiglitazone increased the risk of congestive heart failure. Coadministration of rosiglitazone and insulin is not recommended. [See INDICATIONS AND USAGE, Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events] In 7 controlled, randomized, double-blind trials which had durations from 16 to 26 weeks and which were included in a meta-analysis [see Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events], patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to coadministration of rosiglitazone and insulin (N = 1,018) or insulin (N = 815). In these 7 trials, rosiglitazone was added to insulin. These trials included patients with long-standing diabetes (median duration of 12 years) and a high prevalence of pre-existing medical conditions, including peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, vascular disease, and congestive heart failure. The total number of patients with emergent congestive heart failure was 23 (2.3%) and 8 (1.0%) in the rosiglitazone plus insulin and insulin groups, respectively. Heart Failure in Observational Studies of Elderly Diabetic Patients Comparing Rosiglitazone to Pioglitazone Three observational studies in elderly diabetic patients (age 65 years and older) found that rosiglitazone statistically significantly increased the risk of hospitalized heart failure compared to use of pioglitazone. One other observational study in patients with a mean age of 54 years, which also included an analysis in a subpopulation of patients >65 years of age, found no statistically significant increase in emergency department visits or hospitalization for heart failure in patients treated with rosiglitazone compared to pioglitazone in the older subgroup. Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events Data from long-term, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials of rosiglitazone versus metformin or sulfonylureas, particularly a cardiovascular outcome trial (RECORD), observed no difference in overall mortality or in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and its components. A meta-analysis of mostly short-term trials suggested an increased risk for myocardial infarction with rosiglitazone compared with placebo. Cardiovascular Events in Large, Long-term, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trials of Rosiglitazone RECORD, a prospectively designed cardiovascular outcome trial (mean follow-up 5.5 years; 4,447 patients), compared the addition of rosiglitazone to metformin or a sulfonylurea (N = 2,220) with a control group of metformin plus sulfonylurea (N = 2,227) in patients with type 2 diabetes [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Non-inferiority was demonstrated for the primary endpoint, cardiovascular hospitalization or cardiovascular death, for rosiglitazone compared with control [HR 0.99 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.16)] demonstrating no overall increased risk in cardiovascular morbidity or mortality. The hazard ratios for total mortality and MACE were consistent with the primary endpoint and the 95% CI similarly excluded a 20% increase in risk for rosiglitazone. The hazard ratios for the components of MACE were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.49, 1.06) for stroke, 1.14 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.63) for myocardial infarction, and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.18) for cardiovascular death. The results of RECORD are consistent with the findings of 2 earlier long-term, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials (each trial >3 years' duration; total of 9,620 patients) (see Figure 1). In patients with impaired glucose tolerance (DREAM trial), although the incidence of cardiovascular events was higher among subjects who were randomized to rosiglitazone in combination with ramipril than among subjects randomized to ramipril alone, no statistically significant differences were observed for MACE and its components between rosiglitazone and placebo. In type 2 diabetes patients who were initiating oral agent monotherapy (ADOPT trial), no statistically significant differences were observed for MACE and its components between rosiglitazone and metformin or a sulfonylurea. Figure 1: Hazard Ratios for the Risk of MACE, Myocardial Infarction, and Total Mortality With Rosiglitazone Compared With a Control Group in Long-term Trials
Cardiovascular Events in a Group of 52 Clinical Trials In a meta-analysis of 52 double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials designed to assess glucose-lowering efficacy in type 2 diabetes (mean duration 6 months), a statistically significant increased risk of myocardial infarction with rosiglitazone versus pooled comparators was observed [0.4% versus 0.3%; OR 1.8, (95% CI: 1.03, 3.25)]. A statistically non-significant increased risk of MACE was observed with rosiglitazone versus pooled comparators (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.20). In the placebo-controlled trials, a statistically significant increased risk of myocardial infarction [0.4% versus 0.2%, OR 2.23 (95% CI: 1.14, 4.64)] and statistically non-significant increased risk of MACE [0.7% versus 0.5%, OR 1.53 (95% CI: 0.94, 2.54)] with rosiglitazone were observed. In the active-controlled trials, there was no increased risk of myocardial infarction or MACE. Mortality in Observational Studies of Rosiglitazone Compared to Pioglitazone Three observational studies in elderly diabetic patients (age 65 years and older) found that rosiglitazone statistically significantly increased the risk of all-cause mortality compared to use of pioglitazone. One observational study in patients with a mean age of 54 years found no difference in all-cause mortality between patients treated with rosiglitazone compared to pioglitazone and reported similar results in the subpopulation of patients >65 years of age. One additional small, prospective, observational study found no statistically significant differences for CV mortality and all-cause mortality in patients treated with rosiglitazone compared to pioglitazone. Edema AVANDAMET should be used with caution in patients with edema. In a clinical trial in healthy volunteers who received rosiglitazone 8 mg once daily for 8 weeks, there was a statistically significant increase in median plasma volume compared with placebo. Since thiazolidinediones, including rosiglitazone, can cause fluid retention, which can exacerbate or lead to congestive heart failure, AVANDAMET should be used with caution in patients at risk for heart failure. Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of heart failure [see BOXED WARNING, Cardiac Failure, PATIENT INFORMATION]. In controlled clinical trials of patients with type 2 diabetes, mild to moderate edema was reported in patients treated with rosiglitazone, and may be dose-related. Patients with ongoing edema were more likely to have adverse events associated with edema if started on combination therapy with insulin and rosiglitazone [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The use of AVANDAMET in combination with insulin is not recommended. [See Cardiac Failure.] Weight Gain Dose-related weight gain was seen with rosiglitazone alone and rosiglitazone together with other hypoglycemic agents (see Table 3). No overall change in median weight was observed with AVANDAMET in drug-naive patients. The mechanism of weight gain with rosiglitazone is unclear but probably involves a combination of fluid retention and fat accumulation. Table 3: Weight Changes (kg) From Baseline at Endpoint During Clinical Trials [Median (25th, 75th Percentiles)]
Monotherapy Duration Control Group Rosiglitazone 4 mg Rosiglitazone 8 mg 26 weeks Placebo -0.9
(-2.8, 0.9)
N = 210 1.0
(0.9, 3.6)
N = 436 3.1
(1.1, 5.8)
N = 439 52 weeks Sulfonylurea 2.0
(0, 4.0)
N = 173 2.0
(-0.6, 4.0)
N = 150 2.6
(0, 5.3)
N = 157 Combination Therapy Duration Control Group Rosiglitazone + Control Therapy Rosiglitazone 4 mg Rosiglitazone 8 mg 24-26 weeks Sulfonylurea 0
(-1.0, 1.3)
N = 1,155 2.2
(0.5, 4.0)
N = 613 3.5
(1.4, 5.9)
N = 841 26 weeks Metformin -1.4
(-3.2, 0.2)
N = 175 0.8
(-1.0, 2.6)
N = 100 2.1
(0, 4.3)
N = 184 26 weeks Insulin 0.9
(-0.5, 2.7)
N = 162 4.1
(1.4, 6.3)
N = 164 5.4
(3.4, 7.3)
N = 150 AVANDAMET in Patients With Inadequate Control on Diet and Exercise Duration Control Group AVANDAMET 32 weeks Metformin -2.2
(-5.5, -0.5)
N = 123 0.05 kg
(-3.45, 3.0)
N = 136 Rosiglitazone 1.7
(-1.2, 4.5)
N = 136 AVANDAMET + Insulin Duration Control Group AVANDAMET + Insulin 24 weeks Insulin 2.6 kg
(0.3, 4.8)
N = 145 3.3 kg
(1.5, 6.0)
N = 147 In a 4- to 6-year, monotherapy, comparative trial (ADOPT) in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes not previously treated with antidiabetic medication, the median weight change (25*, 75* percentiles) from baseline at 4 years was 3.5 kg (0.0, 8.1) for rosiglitazone, 2.0 kg (-1.0, 4.8) for glyburide, and -2.4 kg (-5.4, 0.5) for metformin. In postmarketing experience with rosiglitazone alone or in combination with other hypoglycemic agents, there have been rare reports of unusually rapid increases in weight and increases in excess of that generally observed in clinical trials. Patients who experience such increases should be assessed for fluid accumulation and volume-related events such as excessive edema and congestive heart failure [see BOXED WARNING]. Hepatic Effects Metformin Since impaired hepatic function has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis, AVANDAMET should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. Rosiglitazone Liver enzymes should be measured prior to the initiation of therapy with AVANDAMET in all patients and periodically thereafter per the clinical judgment of the healthcare professional. Therapy with AVANDAMET should not be initiated in patients with increased baseline liver enzyme levels (ALT >2.5X upper limit of normal). Patients with mildly elevated liver enzymes (ALT levels ≤ 2.5X upper limit of normal) at baseline or during therapy with AVANDAMET should be evaluated to determine the cause of the liver enzyme elevation. Initiation of, or continuation of, therapy with AVANDAMET in patients with mild liver enzyme elevations should proceed with caution and include close clinical follow-up, including more frequent liver enzyme monitoring, to determine if the liver enzyme elevations resolve or worsen. If at any time ALT levels increase to >3X the upper limit of normal in patients on therapy with AVANDAMET, liver enzyme levels should be rechecked as soon as possible. If ALT levels remain >3X the upper limit of normal, therapy with AVANDAMET should be discontinued. If any patient develops symptoms suggesting hepatic dysfunction, which may include unexplained nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, and/or dark urine, liver enzymes should be checked. The decision whether to continue the patient on therapy with AVANDAMET should be guided by clinical judgment pending laboratory evaluations. If jaundice is observed, drug therapy should be discontinued. In addition, if the presence of hepatic disease or hepatic dysfunction of sufficient magnitude to predispose to lactic acidosis is confirmed, therapy with AVANDAMET should be discontinued. Macular Edema Macular edema has been reported in postmarketing experience in some diabetic patients who were taking rosiglitazone or another thiazolidinedione. Some patients presented with blurred vision or decreased visual acuity, but some patients appear to have been diagnosed on routine ophthalmologic examination. Most patients had peripheral edema at the time macular edema was diagnosed. Some patients had improvement in their macular edema after discontinuation of their thiazolidinedione. Patients with diabetes should have regular eye exams by an ophthalmologist, per the Standards of Care of the American Diabetes Association. Additionally, any diabetic who reports any kind of visual symptom should be promptly referred to an ophthalmologist, regardless of the patient's underlying medications or other physical findings. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] Fractures Long-term trials (ADOPT and RECORD) show an increased incidence of bone fracture in patients, particularly female patients, taking rosiglitazone [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. This increased incidence was noted after the first year of treatment and persisted during the course of the trial. The majority of the fractures in the women who received rosiglitazone occurred in the upper arm, hand, and foot. These sites of fracture are different from those usually associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis (e.g., hip or spine). Other trials suggest that this risk may also apply to men, although the risk of fracture among women appears higher than that among men. The risk of fracture should be considered in the care of patients treated with rosiglitazone, and attention given to assessing and maintaining bone health according to current standards of care. Hematologic Effects Decreases in mean hemoglobin and hematocrit occurred in a dose-related fashion in adult patients treated with rosiglitazone [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. The observed changes may be related to the increased plasma volume observed with treatment with rosiglitazone and may be dose-related. The decrease in hemoglobin was seen more frequently in combination rosiglitazone and metformin therapy than in rosiglitazone therapy alone. Vitamin B12 deficiency may contribute to the observed reductions in hemoglobin. Initial and periodic monitoring of hematologic parameters (e.g., hemoglobin/hematocrit and red blood cell indices) should be performed, at least on an annual basis. Vitamin B12 Levels In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29 weeks' duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum vitamin B12 measurements at 2- to 3-year intervals may be useful. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be excluded if megaloblastic anemia is suspected. [See Hematologic Effects] Diabetes And Blood Glucose Control Periodic fasting blood glucose and HbA1c measurements should be performed to monitor therapeutic response. When a patient stabilized on any diabetic regimen is exposed to stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, a temporary loss of glycemic control may occur. At such times, it may be necessary to withhold AVANDAMET and temporarily administer insulin. AVANDAMET may be reinstituted after the acute episode is resolved. Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation, or during concomitant use with hypoglycemic agents (such as sulfonylureas or insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated or malnourished patients, and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly and in people who are taking P-adrenergic blocking drugs. Patients receiving rosiglitazone in combination with other hypoglycemic agents may be at risk for hypoglycemia, and a reduction in the dose of the concomitant agent may be necessary. Ovulation Therapy with rosiglitazone, like other thiazolidinediones, may result in ovulation in some premenopausal anovulatory women. As a result, these patients may be at an increased risk for pregnancy while taking AVANDAMET [see Use In Specific Populations]. Thus, adequate contraception in premenopausal women should be recommended. This possible effect has not been specifically investigated in clinical trials; therefore, the frequency of this occurrence is not known. Although hormonal imbalance has been seen in preclinical studies [see Nonclinical Toxicology], the clinical significance of this finding is not known. If unexpected menstrual dysfunction occurs, the benefits of continued therapy with AVANDAMET should be reviewed. Patient Counseling Information Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide). There are multiple medications available to treat type 2 diabetes. The benefits and risks of each available diabetes medication should be taken into account when choosing a particular diabetes medication for a given patient. Patients should be informed of the following:
  • The risks of lactic acidosis, its symptoms, and conditions that predispose to its development, as noted in the WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections, should be explained to patients. Patients should be advised to discontinue AVANDAMET immediately and to promptly notify their health practitioner if unexplained hyperventilation, myalgia, malaise, unusual somnolence, or other nonspecific symptoms occur. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of AVANDAMET, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of metformin therapy, are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease.
  • Avoid excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, while receiving AVANDAMET.
  • AVANDAMET is not recommended for patients with symptomatic heart failure.
  • A meta-analysis of mostly short-term trials suggested an increased risk for myocardial infarction with rosiglitazone compared with placebo. Data from long-term clinical trials of rosiglitazone versus other antidiabetes agents (metformin or sulfonylureas), including a cardiovascular outcome trial (RECORD), observed no difference in overall mortality or in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and its components.
  • AVANDAMET is not recommended for patients who are taking insulin.
  • Management of type 2 diabetes should include diet control. Caloric restriction, weight loss, and exercise are essential for the proper treatment of the diabetic patient because they help improve insulin sensitivity. This is important not only in the primary treatment of type 2 diabetes but also in maintaining the efficacy of drug therapy.
  • It is important to adhere to dietary instructions and to regularly have blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), renal function, and hematologic parameters tested. It can take 2 weeks to see a reduction in blood glucose and 2 to 3 months to see the full effect of AVANDAMET.
  • Blood will be drawn to check their liver function prior to the start of therapy and periodically thereafter per the clinical judgment of the healthcare professional. Patients with unexplained symptoms of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, anorexia, or dark urine should immediately report these symptoms to their physician.
  • Patients who experience an unusually rapid increase in weight or edema or who develop shortness of breath or other symptoms of heart failure while on AVANDAMET should immediately report these symptoms to their physician.
  • Therapy with AVANDAMET, like other thiazolidinediones, may result in ovulation in some premenopausal anovulatory women. As a result, these patients may be at an increased risk for pregnancy while taking AVANDAMET. Thus, adequate contraception in premenopausal women should be recommended. This possible effect has not been specifically investigated in clinical trials so the frequency of this occurrence is not known.
Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility No animal studies have been conducted with AVANDAMET. The following data are based on findings in studies performed with rosiglitazone or metformin individually. Rosiglitazone A 2-year carcinogenicity study was conducted in Charles River CD-1 mice at doses of 0.4, 1.5, and 6 mg/kg/day in the diet (highest dose equivalent to approximately 12 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 2 years by oral gavage at doses of 0.05, 0.3, and 2 mg/kg/day (highest dose equivalent to approximately 10 and 20 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET for male and female rats, respectively). Rosiglitazone was not carcinogenic in the mouse. There was an increase in incidence of adipose hyperplasia in the mouse at doses ≥1.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). In rats, there was a significant increase in the incidence of benign adipose tissue tumors (lipomas) at doses ≥0.3 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). These proliferative changes in both species are considered due to the persistent pharmacological overstimulation of adipose tissue. Rosiglitazone was not mutagenic or clastogenic in the in vitro bacterial assays for gene mutation, the in vitro chromosome aberration test in human lymphocytes, the in vivo mouse micronucleus test, and the in vivo/in vitro rat UDS assay. There was a small (about 2-fold) increase in mutation in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay in the presence of metabolic activation. Rosiglitazone had no effects on mating or fertility of male rats given up to 40 mg/kg/day (approximately 116 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). Rosiglitazone altered estrous cyclicity (2 mg/kg/day) and reduced fertility (40 mg/kg/day) of female rats in association with lower plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol (approximately 20 and 200 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET, respectively). No such effects were noted at 0.2 mg/kg/day (approximately 3 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET). In juvenile rats dosed from 27 days of age through to sexual maturity (at up to 40 mg/kg/day), there was no effect on male reproductive performance, or on estrous cyclicity, mating performance or pregnancy incidence in females (approximately 68 times human AUC at the maximum recommended daily dose of rosiglitazone). In monkeys, rosiglitazone (0.6 and 4.6 mg/kg/day; approximately 3 and 15 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET, respectively) diminished the follicular phase rise in serum estradiol with consequential reduction in the luteinizing hormone surge, lower luteal phase progesterone levels, and amenorrhea. The mechanism for these effects appears to be direct inhibition of ovarian steroidogenesis. Metformin Long-term carcinogenicity studies have been performed in rats (dosing duration of 104 weeks) and mice (dosing duration of 91 weeks) at doses up to and including 900 mg/kg/day and 1,500 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are both approximately 4 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2,000 mg of the metformin component of AVANDAMET based on body surface area comparisons. No evidence of carcinogenicity with metformin was found in either male or female mice. Similarly, there was no tumorigenic potential observed with metformin in male rats. There was, however, an increased incidence of benign stromal uterine polyps in female rats treated with 900 mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of mutagenic potential of metformin in the following in vitro tests: Ames test (S. typhimurium), gene mutation test (mouse lymphoma cells), or chromosomal aberrations test (human lymphocytes). Results in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test were also negative. Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by metformin when administered at doses as high as 600 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of the metformin component of AVANDAMET based on body surface area comparisons. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss, or other adverse outcome regardless of drug exposure. This background risk is increased in pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia and may be decreased with good metabolic control. It is essential for patients with diabetes or history of gestational diabetes to maintain good metabolic control before conception and throughout pregnancy. Careful monitoring of glucose control is essential in such patients. Most experts recommend that insulin monotherapy be used during pregnancy to maintain blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. AVANDAMET should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Human Data There are no adequate and well-controlled trials with AVANDAMET or its individual components in pregnant women. Rosiglitazone has been reported to cross the human placenta and be detectable in fetal tissue. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Animal Studies No animal studies have been conducted with AVANDAMET. The following data are based on findings in studies performed with rosiglitazone or metformin individually. Rosiglitazone: There was no effect on implantation or the embryo with rosiglitazone treatment during early pregnancy in rats, but treatment during mid-late gestation was associated with fetal death and growth retardation in both rats and rabbits. Teratogenicity was not observed at doses up to 3 mg/kg in rats and 100 mg/kg in rabbits (approximately 20 and 75 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET, respectively). Rosiglitazone caused placental pathology in rats (3 mg/kg/day). Treatment of rats during gestation through lactation reduced litter size, neonatal viability, and postnatal growth, with growth retardation reversible after puberty. For effects on the placenta, embryo/fetus, and offspring, the no-effect dose was 0.2 mg/kg/day in rats and 15 mg/kg/day in rabbits. These no-effect levels are approximately 4 times human AUC at the maximum recommended human daily dose of the rosiglitazone component of AVANDAMET. Rosiglitazone reduced the number of uterine implantations and live offspring when juvenile female rats were treated at 40 mg/kg/day from 27 days of age through to sexual maturity (approximately 68 times human AUC at the maximum recommended daily dose). The no-effect level was 2 mg/kg/day (approximately 4 times human AUC at the maximum recommended daily dose). There was no effect on pre- or post-natal survival or growth. Metformin: Metformin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day. This represents an exposure of about 2 and 6 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2,000 mg based on body surface area comparisons for rats and rabbits, respectively. Determination of fetal concentrations demonstrated a partial placental barrier to metformin. Labor And Delivery The effect of AVANDAMET or its components on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. Nursing Mothers No studies have been conducted with AVANDAMET. In studies performed with the individual components, both rosiglitazone-related material and metformin were detectable in milk from lactating rats. It is not known whether rosiglitazone or metformin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue AVANDAMET, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of AVANDAMET in pediatric patients have not been established. AVANDAMET and rosiglitazone are not indicated for use in pediatric patients. Geriatric Use Metformin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and because the risk of serious adverse reactions to the drug is greater in patients with impaired renal function, AVANDAMET should only be used in patients with normal renal function [see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY]. Because reduced renal function is associated with increasing age, AVANDAMET should be used with caution in elderly patients. Care should be taken in dose selection and should be based on careful and regular monitoring of renal function. Generally, elderly patients should not be titrated to the maximum dose of AVANDAMET [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Last reviewed on RxList: 5/28/2014
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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