Drug: Azmacort

Proprietary name: Azmacort
Established name: Triamcinolone acetonide
Route of administration: RESPIRATORY (INHALATION) (C38216)
Active ingredients (moiety): Triamcinolone acetonide (Triamcinolone) # Strength Form Inactive ingredients 1 60 MILLIGRAM AEROSOL, METERED (C42960) Dehydrated alcohol, dichlorodifluoromethane Triamcinolone acetonide, USP, the active ingredient in Azmacort® (triamcinolone acetonide inhalation aerosol) Inhalation Aerosol, is a corticosteroid with a molecular weight of 434.5 and with the chemical designation 9- Fluoro-11β,16α,17,21-tetrahydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione cyclic 16,17-acetal with acetone. (C24H31FO6). Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide inhalation aerosol) Inhalation Aerosol is a metered-dose aerosol unit containing a microcrystalline suspension of triamcinolone acetonide in the propellant dichlorodifluoromethane and dehydrated alcohol USP 1% w/w. Each canister contains 60 mg triamcinolone acetonide. The canister must be primed prior to the first use. After an initial priming of 2 actuations, each actuation delivers 200 mcg triamcinolone acetonide from the valve and 75 mcg from the spacer-mouthpiece under definedin vitro test conditions. The canister will remain primed for 3 days. If the canister is not used for more than 3 days, then it should be reprimed with 2 actuations. There are at least 240 actuations in one Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide inhalation aerosol) Inhalation Aerosol canister. After 240 actuations, the amount delivered per actuation may not be consistent and the unit should be discarded.

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The table below describes the incidence of common adverse experiences based upon three placebo-controlled, multicenter US clinical trials of 507 patients (297 female and 210 male adults (age range 18-64)). These trials included asthma patients who had previously received inhaled beta2-agonists alone, as well as those who previously required inhaled corticosteroid therapy for the control of their asthma. The patients were treated with Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol (including doses ranging from 150 to 600 mcg twice daily for 6 weeks) or placebo. Adverse Events Occurring at an Incidence of Greater Than 3% and Greater Than Placebo
Adverse Event 150 mcg
bid
(n=57) Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Dose
300 mcg bid
(n=170) 600 mcg
bid
(n=57) Placebo
(n=167) Sinusitis 5 (9%) 7 (4%) 1 (2%) 6 (4%) Pharyngitis 4 (7%) 42 (25%) 10 (18%) 19 (11%) Headache 4 (7%) 35 (21%) 7 (12%) 24 (14%) Flu Syndrome 2 (4%) 8 (5%) 1 (2%) 5 (3%) Back Pain 2 (4%) 3 (2%) 2 (4%) 3 (2%) Adverse events that occurred at an incidence of 1-3% in the overall Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol treatment group and greater than placebo included: Body as a whole: facial edema, pain, abdominal pain, photosensitivity Digestive system: diarrhea, oral monilia, toothache, vomiting Metabolic and Nutrition: weight gain Musculoskeletal system: bursitis, myalgia, tenosynovitis Nervous system: dry mouth Organs of special sense: rash Respiratory system: chest congestion, voice alteration Urogenital system: cystitis, urinary tract infection, vaginal monilia In older controlled clinical trials of steroid dependent asthmatics, urticaria was reported rarely. Anaphylaxis was not reported in these controlled trials. Typical steroid withdrawal effects including muscle aches, joint aches, and fatigue were noted in clinical trials when patients were transferred from oral steroid therapy to Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol. Easy bruisability was also noted in these trials. Hoarseness, dry throat, irritated throat, dry mouth, facial edema, increased wheezing, and cough have been reported. These adverse effects have generally been mild and transient. Cases of oral candidiasis occurring with clinical use have been reported. (See WARNINGS.) Cases of growth suppression have been reported for orally inhaled corticosteroids (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use section). Post Marketing: In addition to adverse events reported from clinical trials, the following events have been identified during post approval use of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol where these events were reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, and the frequency of occurrence cannot be determined precisely. These include rare reports of anaphylaxis, cataracts, glaucoma and very rare reports of bone mineral density loss and osteoporosis, especially with prolonged use, which may lead to an increased risk of fractures. Read the Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Adults: The usual recommended dosage is two inhalations (150 mcg) given three to four times a day or four inhalations (300 mcg) given twice daily. The maximal daily intake should not exceed 16 inhalations (1200 mcg) in adults. Higher initial doses (12 to 16 inhalations per day) may be considered in patients with more severe asthma. Children 6 to 12 Years of Age: The usual recommended dosage is one or two inhalations (75 to 150 mcg) given three to four times a day or two to four inhalations (150 to 300 mcg) given twice daily. The maximal daily intake should not exceed 12 inhalations (900 mcg) in children 6 to 12 years of age. Insufficient clinical data exist with respect to the safety and efficacy of the administration of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol to children below the age of 6. The long-term effects of inhaled steroids, including Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol on growth are still not fully known. Rinsing the mouth after inhalation is advised. Different considerations must be given to the following groups of patients in order to obtain the full therapeutic benefit of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol: Note : In all patients, it is desirable to titrate to the lowest effective dose once asthma stability has been achieved. Patients Not Receiving Systemic Corticosteroids: Patients who require maintenance therapy of their asthma may benefit from treatment with Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol at the doses recommended above. In patients who respond to Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol improvement in pulmonary function is usually apparent within one to two weeks after the initiation of therapy. Patients Maintained on Systemic Corticosteroids: Clinical studies have shown that Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol may be effective in the management of asthmatics dependent or maintained on systemic corticosteroids and may permit replacement or significant reduction in the dosage of systemic corticosteroids. The patient's asthma should be reasonably stable before treatment with Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide)Inhalation Aerosol is started. Initially, Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol should be used concurrently with the patient's usual maintenance dose of systemic corticosteroid. After approximately one week, gradual withdrawal of the systemic corticosteroid is started by reducing the daily or alternate daily dose. Reductions may be made after an interval of one or two weeks, depending on the response of the patient. A slow rate of withdrawal is strongly recommended. Generally, these decrements should not exceed 2.5 mg of prednisone or its equivalent. During withdrawal, some patients may experience symptoms of systemic corticosteroid withdrawal, e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression, despite maintenance or even improvement in pulmonary function. Such patients should be encouraged to continue with the inhaler but should be monitored for objective signs of adrenal insufficiency. If evidence of adrenal insufficiency occurs, the systemic corticosteroid doses should be increased temporarily and thereafter withdrawal should continue more slowly. Inhaled corticosteroids should be used with caution when used chronically in patients receiving prednisone regimens, either daily or alternate day. (See WARNINGS.) During periods of stress or a severe asthma attack, transfer patients may require supplementary treatment with systemic corticosteroids. Directions for Use: An illustrated leaflet of patient instructions for proper use accompanies each package of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol.

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No information provided. Last reviewed on RxList: 3/25/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol is indicated in the maintenance treatment of asthma as prophylactic therapy. Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol is also indicated for asthma patients who require systemic corticosteroid administration, where adding Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol may reduce or eliminate the need for the systemic corticosteroids. Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide) Inhalation Aerosol is NOT indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm.

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Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol is contraindicated in the primary treatment of status asthmaticus or other acute episodes of asthma where intensive measures are required. Hypersensitivity to triamcinolone acetonide or any of the other ingredients in this preparation contraindicates its use.Last reviewed on RxList: 3/25/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

There are no data available on the effects of acute or chronic overdose. However, acute overdosing with Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol is unlikely in view of the total amount of active ingredient present and the route of administration. The maximum total daily dose (1200 mcg) has been well tolerated when administered as a single dose of 16 consecutive inhalations to adult asthmatics in a controlled clinical trial. Chronic overdosage may result in signs/symptoms of hypercorticoidism. (See PRECAUTIONS.) The risk of candidiasis could also be increased.

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# Name Strength Dosage Form Appearance Package Type Package Qty NDC 1 Azmacort 60MILLIGRAM AEROSOL METERED (C42960)   INHALER (C16738) 6 MILLIGRAM 60598-061-60 Azmacort Inhalation Aerosol contains 60 mg triamcinolone acetonide in a 20 gram package which delivers at least 240 actuations. It is supplied with a white plastic actuator, a white plastic spacer-mouthpiece and patient's leaflet of instructions: box of one. NDC 60598-061-60. Each actuation delivers 200 mcg triamcinolone acetonide from the valve and 75 mcg from the spacer-mouthpiece under defined in vitro test conditions. Avoid spraying in eyes. For best results, the canister should be at room temperature before use. Shake well before using. CONTENTS UNDER PRESSURE. Do not puncture. Do not use or store near heat or open flame. Exposure to temperatures above 120°F may cause bursting. Never throw canister into fire or incinerator. Keep out of reach of children unless otherwise prescribed. Store at Controlled Room Temperature 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F) [see USP]. Note: The indented statement below is required by the Federal government's Clean Air Act for all products containing or manufactured with chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): WARNING: Contains CFC-12, a substance which harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere. A notice similar to the above WARNING has been placed in the "Information For The Patient" portion of this package insert under the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) regulations. The patient's warning states that the patient should consult his or her physician if there are questions about alternatives. Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide)Inhalation Aerosol is a registered trademark. ©2007 Kos Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Manufactured for: Kos Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Cranbury, NJ 08512. FDA rev date: 3/13/2008 Last reviewed on RxList: 3/25/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Orally inhaled corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use). Because of the possibility of systemic absorption of inhaled corticosteroids, patients treated with these drugs should be observed carefully for any evidence of systemic corticosteroid effects including suppression of growth in children. Particular care should be taken in observing patients postoperatively or during periods of stress for evidence of a decrease in adrenal function. During withdrawal from oral steroids, some patients may experience symptoms of systemically active steroid withdrawal, e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression, despite maintenance or even improvement of respiratory function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) Although steroid withdrawal effects are usually transient and not severe, severe and even fatal exacerbation of asthma can occur if the previous daily oral corticosteroid requirement had significantly exceeded 10 mg/day of prednisone or equivalent. In responsive patients, inhaled corticosteroids will often permit control of asthmatic symptoms with less suppression of HPA function than therapeutically equivalent oral doses of prednisone. Since triamcinolone acetonide is absorbed into the circulation and can be systemically active, the beneficial effects of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol in minimizing or preventing HPA dysfunction may be expected only when recommended dosages are not exceeded. Suppression of HPA function has been reported in volunteers who received 4000 mcg daily of triamcinolone acetonide by oral inhalation. In addition, suppression of HPA function has been reported in some patients who have received recommended doses for as little as 6 to 12 weeks. Since the response of HPA function to inhaled corticosteroids is highly individualized, the physician should consider this information when treating patients. When used at excessive doses or at recommended doses in a small number of susceptible individuals, systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticoidism and adrenal suppression may appear. If such changes occur, Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) ® Inhalation Aerosol should be discontinued slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for reducing systemic steroid therapy and for management of asthma symptoms. Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculosis infection of the respiratory tract; untreated systemic fungal, bacterial, parasitic, or viral infections; or ocular herpes simplex. The long-term local and systemic effects of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol in human subjects are still not fully known. While there has been no clinical evidence of adverse experiences, the effects resulting from chronic use of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol on developmental or immunologic processes in the mouth, pharynx, trachea, and lung are unknown. Information for Patients: Patients being treated with Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol should receive the following information and instructions. This information is intended to aid them in the safe and effective use of this medication. It is not a complete disclosure of all possible adverse or intended effects. Patients should use Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol at regular intervals as directed. Results of clinical trials indicate that significant improvement in asthma may occur by 1 week, but maximum benefit may not be achieved for 2 weeks or more. The patient should not increase the prescribed dosage but should contact the physician if symptoms do not improve or if the condition worsens. In clinical studies and post-marketing experience with Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol, local infections of the oropharynx with Candida albicans have occurred. When such an infection develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e., oral antifungal) therapy while remaining on treatment with Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol. However, at times therapy with Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol may need to be interrupted. Patients should be instructed to track their use of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol and to dispose of the canister after 240 actuations since reliable dose delivery cannot be assured after 240 doses. Patients who are on immunosuppressant doses of corticosteroids should be warned to avoid exposure to chickenpox or measles and, if exposed, to obtain medical advice. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: No evidence of treatment-related carcinogenicity was demonstrated after two years of once daily gavage of triamcinolone acetonide at doses of 0.05, 0.2, and 1.0 mcg/kg (approximately 0.02, 0.07, and 0.4% of the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose on a mcg/m2 basis) in the rat and 0.1, 0.6, and 3.0 mcg/kg (approximately 0.02, 0.1, and 0.6% of the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose on a mcg/m2 basis) in a mouse. Mutagenesis studies with triamcinolone acetonide have not been carried out. No evidence of impaired fertility was manifested when oral doses of up to 15.0 mcg/kg (8% of the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose on a mcg/m2 basis) were administered to female and male rats. However, triamcinolone acetonide at oral doses of 8 mcg/kg (approximately 4% of the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose on a mcg/m2 basis) caused dystocia and prolonged delivery and at oral doses of 5.0 mcg/kg (approximately 2.5% of the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose on a mcg/m2 basis) and above caused increases in fetal resorptions and stillbirths and decreases in pup body weight and survival. At a lower dose of 1.0 mcg/kg (approximately 0.5% of the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose on a mcg/m2 basis) it did not induce the above mentioned effects. Pregnancy: Pregnancy Category C. Triamcinolone acetonide has been shown to be teratogenic at inhalational doses of 20, 40, and 80 mcg/kg in rats (approximately 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 times the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose on a mcg/m2 basis, respectively), in rabbits at the same doses (approximately 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 times the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose on a mcg/m2 basis, respectively) and in monkeys, at an inhalational dose of 500 mcg/kg (approximately 5 times the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose on a mcg/m2 basis). Dose related teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits included cleft palate and/or internal hydrocephaly and axial skeletal defects whereas the teratogenic effects observed in the monkey were CNS and/or cranial malformations. There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Triamcinolone acetonide should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Experience with oral glucocorticoids since their introduction in pharmacologic as opposed to physiologic doses suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from glucocorticoids than humans. In addition, because there is a natural increase in glucocorticoid production during pregnancy, most women will require a lower exogenous steroid dose and many will not need glucocorticoid treatment during pregnancy. Nonteratogenic Effects: Hypoadrenalism may occur in infants born of mothers receiving corticosteroids during pregnancy. Such infants should be carefully observed. Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether triamcinolone acetonide is excreted in human milk. Because other corticosteroids are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol is administered to nursing women. Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients below the age of 6. Controlled clinical studies have shown that orally inhaled corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. In these studies, the mean reduction in growth velocity was approximately one centimeter (cm) per year (range 0.3 to 1.8 cm per year; 0.12 to 0.71 inches) and appears to depend upon dose and duration of exposure. [The specific growth effects of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) have also been studied in a controlled clinical trial (see data below)]. This effect was observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. To assess if Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) has an effect on growth, a one-year, randomized, open-label study of pre-pubescent boys and girls ages 6-11 with moderate to severe asthma was conducted. Children with moderate asthma were randomized to a nonsteroidal treatment or to Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) , children with severe asthma to Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) plus prednisone or just prednisone alone. A sex and age matched group of healthy non-asthmatic children was also included. The average daily dose of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) was 400 mcg (range 75 to 1600 mcg/day, dose adjustments were permitted). Non-asthmatic children (mean 8.2 years) grew 5.93 cm/year (n=96). In the moderate asthma groups, the Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) children (mean 8.2 years) grew 5.34 cm/year (n=101) and the nonsteroidal children (mean 8.5 years) grew 6.13 cm/year (n=95). In the severe groups, the Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) plus prednisone children (mean 8.2 years) grew 5.46 cm/year (n=33) and the prednisone only children (mean 8.0 years) grew 5.59 cm/year (n=31). Due to low enrollment in the severe patient groups, there was insufficient power to interpret the statistical analyses on these groups. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with orally inhaled corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for "catch up" growth following discontinuation of treatment with orally inhaled corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of children and adolescents receiving orally inhaled corticosteroids, including Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) , should be monitored routinely (e.g. via stadiometry). The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained and the risk associated with alternative therapies. To minimize the systemic effects of orally inhaled corticosteroids, including Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) , each patient should be titrated to the lowest dose that effectively controls his/her symptoms. Geriatric Use: Clinical studies of Azmacort (triamcinolone acetonide (inhalation aerosol)) Inhalation Aerosol did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Last reviewed on RxList: 3/25/2008
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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